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HIST 2401
James Miller

 A political war  Antietam – influence elections/diplomatic recognition  Emancipation proclamation  1864 election  A war of societies  Bringing the war home  Vicksburg  Sherman’s March  The First Modern War? -Vicksburg=ex of bringing war home -Most famous =sherman’s march -Old fashioned war? Or similar to modern warfare? -war of societies -occupation of villiages/land First Confederate Invasion of the North  Why take the offensive?  Political: increase pressure in an election year  Diplomatic: improve chances of foreign recognition  Psychological: instill fear in northerners by taking the war to them  Military: get Union troops out of VA, put them on the defensive  Supply: allow Shenandoah Valley crops to be harvested Why take the offensive? -Just have to survive to win. Outlast the North -Takes war into northern territory  Lee’s Field Orders found by union troops  Confederate Army to be split  General Thomas Stonewall Jackson (to Harper’s Ferry)  General Robert E. Lee (to Sharpsburg)  But General McClellan did not act  September 17, 1862: battle just south of Sharpsburg along the Antietam River  Bloodiest Single Day of the War  over 23,000 casualties  Consequences For Lee  Avoids destruction  But aims mostly unfulfilled  For Lincoln  Enough of a victory to go ahead with emancipation as a war aim -If a movie, wouldn’t believe it. Parts of Lee’s orders found wrapped around cigars -Battle in capitals over 100 miles apart -23,000 casulaties -depending on where you live, may be the majority of your town -for Lincoln=successful repel of confed attack -limited victory. Could have been more crushing -enough of a victory that can go ahead with turning point in civil war (EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION) -emancipation=war game -changes face of the war -1 more way to undermine the south Emancipation as a War Aim  Why does the abolition of slavery become a war aim?  Hardening of attitudes in the North  July 17, 1862, Congress passed the Second Confiscation and Militia Act - freed slaves owned by masters in the CSAArmy.  Declining Enlistments  CSA draft 1862  USA draft 1863  African Americans  "Contrabands”
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