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US Hist Mar 6.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 2401
James Miller

Cold war wrap up: Stage 1: economic and ideological containment Fall 45-spring 1946 -no formal break over Soviet consolidation of their power in Eastern Europe -“traditional” Soviet challenges to British interests in the Middle East (Iran) and the eastern Mediterranean (Turkey and Greece) Tense/disagreement over things left ambiguous. Grand alliance not completely broken down. As it does break apart, soviet vs everyone else, brit/us policy becomes economic and ideological containment. Not yet dangerous (til 48/49). In power vacuum in Europe, try to establish control in places where allies or where had armies. Demobilizing at beginning of cold war. Turns into a sustained conflict. Building automic bombs just incase. Otherwise demobilizing Soviet was trying to consolidate power on eastern fron (were invaded there twice by Germany) Brits controlled Suez Canal. Independent coungty now but under british control and had british bases. Soviets wanted Darnels controlled by Turkey. Wanted oil concessions in Iran. Us and brits said they’d talk with them about that. Brits didn’t want to give this over now. Key to economic/political interests. Spring 1946 Diplomat George Kennan’s “Long Telegram” (feb 46) sent to explain Stalin’s “anti-western” behaviour. Spoke Russian. One of most articulate diplomats of US. Didn’t know how influential would be -He said: Soviet foreign policy motivated by a combination of traditional Russian imperialism and Marxist-Leninist hostility toward all outsiders -conflict was therefore inevitable regardless of what the West did; don’t base policy of “universal” ideals about state behaviour but on realistic assessments of power and interest -reinforce aggression -US might as well be tough. Don’t try to aggrevate them, but show power and the Russians will respect this. Russians don’t think like us. Critique of wilsonianism. Telling you this is a serious threat, but isn’t a radical anticommie like McCarthy. Was a critic of many anti commie wars later on. Tried to find middle ground? Stalin’s “election” speeches/ jostling for politival power. Talked about inevitability of war. Alarmed people in war. What is the rhetoric coming out of Moscow? 1) The Truman Doctrine (Mar 47) (Crises in Greece and Turkey; stating the commie menace and mobilizing domestic opinion. Brits backed monarchs, soviets backed commies, but not fully because commie funding by Tito. West didn’t see it that way. Commies all under stalin was opinion. Brits ran out of money and told US would have to pull out. US felt like had to step in and send money in its place. Great deal of domestic resistance for major military investments. Midterm election year because FDR dies. Republicans do really well who are hostile to the New deal, trueman and FDR. Fiscally conservative, except liked the bomb. Hard to win favour for this, so need to scare the crap out of congress. If Greece and turkey goes, Italy and france go. Called domino metaphor. Greece/turkey=symbolically important. Distant crisis threat to US security. Truman=we will support free people anywhere. US only country who would stand up) 2) The breakdown of negotiations over German reunification (1947-48) [postwar Germany had been divided into zones of occupation] -Who controls Germany controls Europe. How do we deal with denazification? Rebuilt as a powerhouse or split apart into principalities/forbidden from arming. What kind of Germany will it be? Brits and US decided that Germany needed to rebuild. Germany needed to be rebuilt in order to fund European economy. Brit/france feeding it. Soviet stripping it. 3) Marshall Pla (officially: European Recovery Program), June 47-51 Economic/political negotiation. You may think you like communism, but we will feed you. People being pulled into soviet orbit. If didn’t take the marshall plan, would look like didn’t care about. This was moment stalin reali
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