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Emergence of islam.docx

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HIST 2706
Mohamed Ali

Emergence of islam  Emerged in 622 ad in Saudi Arabia  Mohamed seen as the profit who finished the word of god  Moved from Madina where he was born to Mecca  Took over Mecca, past away in 622, had united the arabs who were clan oriented but in less then 100 years of Mohamed passing away islam spread all the way to southern Spain and India  Arabs traded in caravans, using camels to carry goods  Arabs were familiar with the single god because of jews and Christians  Islam was accepted because it was very simple for them to understand  It lacked mystery of other religion, only required praying 5 times a day and fasting  Islam brought arabs together to be able to colonize Egypt and mesopatamia  Egypt was controlled by Byzantines before Islam  642 the Byzantines were expelled by Muslims and they create Cairo  Egyptians didn’t resist the Muslims  Nubians had 3 christian states and resisted Muslims th  States noba and makuvra combines,and nubia stayed Christian until 14 century  Arabs then turned their expansion to north Africa controlled by Byzantines and barbers  Wanted carthage the most  Took the coastal region defeating the Byzantines, made tunis as capitol (formerly carthage)  Barbers were more resistant, barber were cattle hearders and broken into clans like arabs but were not unified by Islam, were mostly Christian  Kept arabs out for a while but since they were tribal they weren’t unified, not very serious christians  Southern Spain is Muslim by 711 ad  Muslims made people either convert, pay taxes or die, three choices  Most interested in the tax option  Standing Muslim army used to take places over  In converting the barbers a major element was that the berbers wanted to join the army, mostly berbers who colonized southern Spain  Islams let the Coptic Egyptians maintain their land (peasants)  Used Egypt as a breadbasket for food and tax, just like Greeks and romans 
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