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HIST 2902 (5)

End of LBA and start of Iron End of LBA and start of Iron Age

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Carleton University
HIST 2902
Susan Downie

History of Greece Was Homer's Trojan War historical? 1. troy is a real, wealthy, powerful city 2. Mycenaeans present at Troy 3. Trojan horse=eastern siege machine 4. accurate political map of LBA kingdoms 5. Helen of Spartakinship diplomacy (marriage) 6. Hittite diplomatic texts Hittie Treaty (1296-1272BC) - Kingdom of Wilusa> [Wi-li-os] Ilion? - City of Taruiya> [Ta-ro-i-ja] Troia? (Troy) - King Alaksandus> Alexandros Paris ∙ Wilusa troubled by the Ahhiyawa (Mycenaeans) from the west ∙ Troy VI destroyed ca. 1280 BC (earthquake?)..may have brought down parts of walls and left vulnerable to Mycenaeans to attack..therefore reason to have treaty?? The Tawalagetas Letter - dated approx 1 generation after previous treaty - From Hittite Great King Hattusili III, To unnamed king of Ahhiyawa (subordinate there is no politcal unity) ca 1250BC - Millawanda=Mi-la-wa-ta=Miletus - piyama-radus= notorious raider ∙ went rogue from Hittite king, taking shelter in Ahhiyawa territory ∙ offers Ahhiyawa king 'xenia and kinship diplomacy'..use of my Brother throughout letter ∙ threatens war by bringing up previous aggression Mycenaean Greeks brought to Troy at time of last treaty Generalized Conflict in LBA - Battle of Kadesh ∙ Egyptians v Hittites 1274 BC ∙ war between super powers of bronze age ∙ border between two powers..both want control of Palestine coast - Hittite Empire ∙ collapsed ca 1200 BC (drought/famine) ∙ begs Egyptians to send food to save empire in final correspondence - Cyprus, Palestine, Syria ∙ destructions in most cities, including major trading city in Syria - Egyptian Empire ∙ invasions by Sea People (3 different pharoahs) ∙ group of people set in motion by (likely) loss of homeland, coming from different places ∙ large numbers ∙ Pharoah Rameses III>2 major victories in early 12th century against these peoples, one on land, one at sea as recorded on building ∙ some evidence suggests that some members were Philistines (from mohawk type hat) from pictures, also some written sources but all recorded names were guessed at End of the Mycenaeans - 13th century BC, beginning of turmoil, caused citadels to be fortified - Fortifications of Tiryns as well....some sort of military threat on both places ∙ too bad the fortifications did not stop the destruction - destructions by 1150 BC - first Knosses in ~1280BC, over next 100 years everything else falls as well - massive emigration as a result..destruction of Ionia, Cyprus (copper island) ∙ something is going wrong at a systemic level ∙ move to coastal regions and the islands offshore - Athens was not destroyed ∙ shares in decline and movement of populations ∙ population doesn't go too far but remove themselves from mainland ∙ interest in security causes population to move to small island close to shore - Cyrus becomes 'melting pot' on LBA ∙ likely that aristocratic class of Mycene ended up in Cyrus..richest people tend to move furthest ∙ kingship was common practice on Cyprus long after it fell everywhere else ∙ faience rhyton from Kition, Cyrpus 13th BC is example of this ◦ mycenaean date, syrian technique, minian shape and iconography ∙ Cypriot syllabary (800-200 BC) ◦ might have been outcome of linear B arriving on land What happened in Greece? 1. classicist's view>myth - greeks v greek conflict ∙ eg Herakles and Thebans v Orchomenos ∙ Seven Against Thebes and Epigoni ∙ nostoi (Mycenae, Tiryns and others) legends of returns of heros who sacked city of Troy 2. The Dorian Invasion/ "Return of the Hereklids" - hereklids are the sons of Herekles - Herodotus and Thucydides (5th C BC) - modern evidence: archaeology ∙ iron working tech appearance..bronze age comes to an and superior tech.."Iron Age" tech came from northern Herelkids ◦ BUT evidence shows the Mycenae knew how to work iron as well but preferred Bronze.. ∙ cremation v inhumation ◦ burial customs tend to not change very often because it is meaningful to a culture ◦ at end of bronze age, started to cremation instead of inhumation  both have been done all along. ∙ dialect> Doric Greek ◦ after bronze age, writing with an alphabet instead of linear B ◦ 5 major dialects at end of bronze age - problems?? ∙ material change = cultural change?? not necessarily an invader all the time ∙ Dorian (Spartan) propaganda ∙ collapse of culture..not a replacement of Mycenaean Greeks 3. Climate Change (drought> c/w Hittites) 4. Natural catastrophe (Earthquake, floods) - does that destory a culture though? - on Minoan Crete, when a palace was destoryed by earthquake it was always rebuil
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