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HIST 2902 (5)


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Carleton University
HIST 2902
Susan Downie

Partial Messenian Conquest - class unrest among Spartiate 'homoioi' - problem of debt Unintended Consequences - The Parteniai 'maiden sons' ∙ not full citizens..and do not get land allocation ∙ Spartan mothers with non-spartan fathers while Spartans are away fighting war ∙ send these 'halfs' to form a colony in Tarentum (southern Italy), ca 700BC - Potential Security Threat ∙ unrecognized ∙ Sparta was made of 10 villages never more than 8,000 ∙ just conquered more than 10000 people to become slaves who used to be free Continued Spartan Expansion (Try to go North) - Battle of Hysiae, 669BC ∙ huge lose ∙ Causes Messenia to revolt and Sparta loses territory ◦ Second Messenian War 650-630BC - entire region conquered - entire population become slaves - Consequences of 2nd War ∙ land distribution/extension of citizenship ◦ Richer get more, but poor still get some - don't have to work land, as they all get slaves (Helots) ∙ security threat recognized ◦ aware that Helots can rebel at anytime and threaten economic stability ◦ has been estimated that ratio of Helots to Spartans ranges from 5:1 to 15:1 ◦ annual declaration of war - killing during wartime is not a crime, therefore not punishable - can kill Helots at any time.. ◦ the Krypteia - more of a symbolic event in Sparta - comes from word that gives us Krypt..mean 'secret' - young men as a rite of passage - spend time in wilderness, live rough, hunt, etc...seems that darker side is developed, kill a Helot as rite of passage to manhood - annual event - not necessarily a regular part of state, more a mechanism of terror ∙ radical social and constitutional change ◦ Spartiate class restrictions - attempts to turn entire Spartan society into Aristocratic (no menial labour or trade) - sumptuary laws (illegal for rich to publically display wealth) ◦ Spartan Constitution - The Great rhetra or Constitution of Lykourgos ∙ 'that which is uttered' ∙ might refer to debarring of righting down laws ∙ Apollo in Dephi - Sources: Hdt.1.65 and Plut. Lyk.6.1-8 Spartan Government - Duarchy ∙ 2 Hereditary Kings (Basileis) ◦ is this meant to solve aristocratic rivalry - given to 2 most powerful men in community (come from the 2 of 4 villages that were more prominent and larger) ◦ primarily military and religious leaders - 1 leads army, 1 stays behind to manage affairs of Sparta ∙ gives continuity to State - both have huge religious functions to fulfill ∙ one leader of Athena..other leader of ◦ No real political p
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