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HIST 2905 January 16, 2014.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 2904
Greg Fisher

Year of the 4 emperors • Relevance of histories today o Failure of political leadership o Financial turmoil o Moral bankruptcy • Galba - incompetent • Otho - traditional • Vitelliuss - insensitive one • Vespasian - no-nonsense officer Galba He was a senator and was the final member of the Roman aristocracy. After Nero, he had the support of the senate and the praetorians. The praetorians ended in odds with his attitue, "I do not buy soldiers, I chose them." In Rome, Galba goes back to the manicottis trial without referring to the senate From Galba to Commodus Third contestant • Vitellius, April 19-Dec. 20, 69 • April 19, proclaimed emperor actions in Rome - Did not help (Domus Aurea) o New urban garrison created • Citizens of the city were angry from the soldiers that entered • Vitellius moved into Domus Aurea, Nero's old building, irritated parts of army, senate and most of the people o He would not last, the victor would be the one who would understand pragmaticness • Meanwhile, in he East o Governor of Syria, prefect of Egypt and commander in Judaea get together to launch their own rival bit • Decided that the last person to launch this bit would be  Commander = Titus Flavius Vespasianus = 'Vespasian' • July 1, 69 -> proclaimed emperor, in the Autum, defeated Vitellius, major battle fought I nthe Italian pennisula • Battle went to Rome and Vespasian's brother was killed • Actions at Cremona • Actions in Rome • Legions in the Danube sent in their armies when they aligned themselves with Vespasian • Finally, Vitellius is defeated  Vespasian acclaimed emperor  Civil war was now over • Huge reconstruction job was now needed • War could be interpreted as part of the war • Vespansian had the most competent army and the best equipped • Why war? o Memory of Nero -> divison of political life o Related from the transformation of the state from the empire to the republic • Part of the continuity theme o Otho, Vitellius -> populist, monarchic o Galba, Vespasian -> senatorial • Span his beliefs in a different way, tension and political life are seen  What place does the emperor and senate have in society? • Do we go back in the republic? o Nero left a spot for people • Ironically, Vespasian will preside over one of the strengthening over the Roman imperial system and the emperor • Other aspects o Praetorians < provincial armies • Brought to a halt • Did lions' share of fighting o Power curbed - a bit • The influence of the Praetorians in Rome • Provincial armies are doing all the fighting • Danube are better soldiers, better lead o Army 'characters' - Syria, Rhine, Danube rivalries between armies, commanders • Contest between the different rivalries • Armies would form a different character • Armies developed their own flavour or characters  Syrian soldiers are different from the Rhine and the Danube  Rhine and Danube have a strong loyalty to commanders and their land • State is constantly changing • 69 -> not a good year o Capitol burned • Many statutes taken down o War in Palestine/Judaea • Didn't stop, the Romans actually were fighting other wars and the Jews were rebelling • Acts of damage, causes dislocation in the economy, affecting trades and supplies o Vets, deserters in countryside • Are running around like bandits because there has been a breakdown in policing o Admin • No maintenance being performed, no food, • All restored in two years by Vespasian (a proper emperor) o Restoration of imperial rule • The 'Flavian' dynasty o Vespasian 69-79 • To romanize themselves, they take the name Flavian to pay homage to Vespasian and success, the word means good order and justice o 60 y.o o Equestrian • From middle order, not senator o Served in legions- and as a praetor • Lots of experience both in army and in government  Served as civilian administrator as the praetor o Cos. 51 o Procos. Africa 61 [procouncilship] -> official hold position as a consul (highest position in the government) without being elected, very senior position superseded by only dictatorships • Job of governor of the province of Africa (Tunisia)  One of the prestigious of all o Solid career • Many of Rome's successful emperors turn out to have a lot of history as army • Earlier, in Judaea for Nero (66) • Characteristcs o Picked because of record of success and excellence o Modesty o Caution o Realism • He was practical o Reflective of best military trads • Many of traditions came from traditions in the army • Vespasian has this kind of restraint • Vespasian- set a
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