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HIST 2905 March 11, 2014.docx

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HIST 2904
Greg Fisher

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Constantine and succession •Was succeeded by one of the seven that he chose •Laid a close relationship between the church and saint • He and his mother Helena were made saints o But he steamed his wife to death (Fausta, 336) • A year before he died After Constantine: •It was the secession of the Emperor Julian o He tries to reverse everything that Constantine does o Tries to revert back to Paganism • Killed on campaign in Persia • Three main problems o Government • What kind of shape to take  Constantine established sole rule and then period of war between 7 emperor  Constantine put out quite a few successors o Christianity • What shape should it take in the empire? How should it relate in State policy?  What to do with people who follow wrong kind of Christianity o Barbarians • Uncivilized behaviour • People who are non-Romans • Play a much more important role than they used to o After 337: Dalmatius murdered, empire divided • Empire was divded between those who were still standing  Problems over what shape the government should take because someone was executed New rulers: o Constantine II: Takes Gaul, Britain, Spain o Constans: Africa, Italy, Illyria o Constantius II: The East • But question was, would it last?  HAHAHAHAHAHAHHAAHAHAHA, NO. o 340L Constantine II killed by Constans o 350: Constans was killed by usurper, Magnentius o 353: Magnentius was defeated by Constantius II • Sole emperor: Constanius II o Appointed Caesars - killed one, kept Julian  Question of what kind of government should happen happened through war and now there was a Monarchy o Constantius II: Faced two main problems 1. Religious  Should be personal, but is tied to state policy because of Constantine intervening early in Church councils •Orthodoxy (The right way or the right road •Heresy (The wrong road) • What is orthodox belief? • How to deal with different types of Christianity • Eg. Arianism, very popular • But they were called heretics, too many people, need them to fight wars and pay taxes • Spectre: civil war between Christians  Tied to every state level of policy • Empires devote much of their empire trying to figure out what orthodox should be • In the background -> there are still Pagans, who are targets of persecution o Constantius II: Faced two problems • Sasanians in Armenia o Shapur II, trying to out Shapur Shapur I • Ably backed up by Julian in West o 357: massive victory at Strasbourg over Germans • Coalition, location shows us that we have a war inside the Roman boarders • Problems of third century crisis have not gone away o Constantius II - Asked Julian for help with Sasanians • At Lutetia • Constantius saved everyone a lot of trouble by dying of natural causes o Four areas: 1. Emperor 2. Army -> similarities with the modern situation 3. Twin Capitals -> Constantinople and Rome 4. Society and how it is effected The Emperor: •4th century - absolute monarchy •Memories of participate o Emperor intervened in laws, civil matters, embassies, petitions • Emperor receives and directs embassies o Main supporter? Army o Special relationship o Importance of relationship • Special relationship with armed forces •"Approachable" to "unapproachable" o Guarded by army and away from people o Guarded by God, which makes him different from everyone else • Lives in a palace now, away from other people •Palace, far from Rome •Dress; ceremony; removed from mortals •Strengthened the Absolutism of the empire o Marcus Aurelius to Trajan •What is behind the emperor? o Complex imperial administration • Developed by Diocletian and reformed  Tetrarchic councils • Duplicated government of Roman State -> each emperor must have his own council and his own court  Agentes in rebus • Agents of things -> spy service -> put their hands into every part of life  Vicarii • Vicars who run the many parts of the empire • Interposing between existing levels, councils, vicars, increased the number of provinces so that there are more governments, balloons in size and depth • New layers of impenetrable administration • Administration reinforces the absolutism of the Empire • Dozes of new areas and departments  Quebec duplicates tax funds and so on • Massive administrative
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