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HIST 2905 March 18, 2014.docx

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HIST 2904
Greg Fisher

1. Emperor a. Remote, micromanager, absolutist - cf. Augustutus, Special relationship i. Diolcleian and Constantine i. Now have a remote government, micromanager i. Writing back to people in the empire i. Absolutist (openly) ruler than Augustus, who cloaked his autocracy in democratic institution 1. There is an evolution of imperial power 1. Army a. Special relationship with army a. See that special relationship with Septimus severus, who told sons to not care about anything else but the army i. Quantity > quality; refortification' split between comitatus and Limitanei; new scholae for Constantine; no praetorians; new officer corps; new magistri, commanders a. And: seperation of civil/military i. Diolecian thought about the fortification of the east i. Developed two speed miiltary 1. One was mobile army that could respond quickly to problems (COMITATUS) everyone is in Limitanei (limit or frontier, they are the people of the frontier or frontier army) Constantine disbanded the Praetorians and instituted Scholai (regiments that are closely linked to Constantine, one of them is the imperial body guard, purpose is to make an army not just loyal to him bbut to train new officers as well 1. Magistri -> elite commanders who have domineering titles -> 2. seperation of civil and military power, originated by emperor to forestall usurpation attempts 3. Coups and usurpations come from people who are similar to emperor in status and power and not from the bottom that people launch from the bottom of the rung a. The military is no longer available to the people 1. Twin capitals (and cities, provinces)-complex administration; provinces -> dioceses -> prefectures a. There was a new section -> dioceses that was grouped into a new section of prefectures b. Hierarchiailzing of the bureaucracy 1. Society and economy a. Dioceses made in Diocletian's empire, each of these are made to spread i. Crazy subdivides of the empire as well i. Remember - praetorian prefects are civil governors i. Cities -> hub of life i. New second capital: Constantinople i. Rome and Constantinople conceived as twin cities of empire i. Behind this: military cities: Milan, Ravenna, Sirmium, a. Into all of these old cities, he inserts Constantinople or its other name Byzantium i. Constantine occupies a different place 1. Rome is a senior partner, obvious that Constantinople is much more important 1. Dioclecian brings them out of the third century crisis a. Internlude; Changing institutions i. Constantinople: 1. Many remains: a. Hagia Sophia (later) a. Hippodrome a. Baths a. Aqueducts a. Walls b. Imperial palace a. Augustust lived on a house that was in the nicer area of Rome, but the emperors now live in a gated palace away from people a. Basics of Admin i. Absolute monarchy i. Hierarchical and complex (Notitia) i. Cities hub of life and admin 1. Constantinopole is the centre of rich political life i. Provinces reorganised - "more efficient" 1. Maybe for tax collecting, real reason is to break up power blocks i. Many new offices (Notitia) 1. Vicars, prefects, etc. a. All of this has happened in response to the third century crisis i. Changes because of pressures on empire 1. Society and Economy • Diocletian and constantine - reissused coiage o 300: (Diocletian) Imperial enquiry - value of goods and labour o 301: Price Edict of Diocletian - on pain of death! -> things that were cheap were expense and vice versa. It wiped out some areas -> in Egypt, people almost died because bread used to be cheaper • In gaul, things that were expensive (bread) went down in price o Gold is of greater importance (on international trade routes) • Standardize weight and how much they are worth • Constantine created (311) 4 1/2g sol
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