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Lecture 5

HIST 3109 Lecture 5: HIST3109 Lecture 5

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Carleton University
HIST 3109
Rod Philips

Monday, February 6, 2017 History 3109 Lecture 5: European Alcohols in New Worlds - Midterm: • Monday night at 6 • look at the article readings before midterm • 6 questions and have to do them all • 20(4) or 10(2) marks for the the questions • gender, consumption, religion, health etc, • big questions: tonight-new worlds, non european world • kinda of alcohol- distilled and fermented • alcohol revolution, infusion of distilled into alcoholic beverages in early modern Europe • big issues • 1 more detailed- classical/ancient period • written not point form unless stuck for time - Indigenous cultures and alcohol: Africa:Palm/cereal-beer. Caribbean: perino: Latin America: chicha (from maize), pulque (from agave) • Africa was bananas • How was this made? • Beer made from different things? - Alcohol in imperial contract: long-distance travel (water), gifts, trade • alcohol made long distance travel more feasible - meant being at sea for months and months at a time • was easier to keep alcohol on the boat for this long without going bad • 1 Monday, February 6, 2017 - Portuguese (slave) trade in East Africa and South American; Dutch in Caribbean; Spanish in Latin America • alcohol became important with the slaves • important people were paid in alcohol • a means of exchange • alcohol in the fur trade in Canada • there was an exchange rate • alcohol was traded in barrels • mostly in spirits - it was important from the alcohol revolution • beer and wine was to unstable- didn't last as long but was said that the portuguese used wine • if you sold alcohol you were known to drink it? • they would be passed cause people would keep trading it- became like money • white spirits were hard (vodka, gin) you could get it then drink some and fill it with water and sell it again for more goods • Caribbean was into rum - sailors also port cities around the world - Colonies: Alcohol production. Latin America: viticulture 1520-1550: wine/ brandy. North America: Beer and wine 1530’s- Cape Colony: viticulture 1650s • Latin America was occupied with the spanish in this time which became new mexico? • wanted to replicate spain as much as possible • they wanted the diet which was a big part- plants and animals that they brought over • they wanted to replicate the alcohol, meant wine at first but later they were turning a lot of their wine into Brandy their not good wine was turned into Brandy • • they began to plant vines when they got to Mexico but it was too hot there the climate did not keep the vines in good shape so this didn't last 2 Monday, February 6, 2017 • as they moved down south they found a good viticulture (chile, and Argentina ) • Cape Colony: - first crop in late 1650s, this was meant to supply the ships and they gave it to the Dutch • - Mexico: the pulque debate. Attempts to grow grades. Baja California. Peru, Chile, Argentina • Spanish moved down from mexico since they could not produce wines here and came to Peru, Chile, and Argentina to produce these • Baja California is in Mexico where they could produce wine • Peru was a huge thing but they all died off and are now coming back • this was wine being produced out of Europe • Mexico and Pulque debate - many spanish colonists began to drink it (not high in alcohol-fermented) there was concern an spanish authorities of the colonists going native and lowering their standards and adopting the behaviour of the indigenous - became a race problem - there was 2 kinds of pulque ; white and mixed, white was natural but mixed was herbs and other things, white was okay but mixed was not — this is a racial problem here - debate ended in the mid 1600s when they saw that failing to stop people from drinking this instead they started to tax it and it became okay - typically in Mexico city - became health=herbs • - Wine in North America: Florida, 1530s. English colonies, 1600: Virginia, New England • English wanted to end their dependence of France and began to produce their own wine 3 Monday, February 6, 2017 • this is why they started the gin craze to stop drinking french brandy • English wanted to grow olives and produce wine but they couldn't grow these there but was good for tobacco (Virginia) - this is when these things did not matter anymore • Vines that are common in Europe (vitis vinifera) a species of vine • but they did not grow well in north america, plant deceases that they didn't have in Europe - Phylloxera - a little thing that feeds on the roots of grape vines and kill them which wiped out the vines in places like france spain etc • Winter also effected this and they wouldn't grow • grapes grew wild in north america but they didn't make good wine • this is crazy cause back in the 1500s the bar was pretty low on what they wouldn't eat and drink - they called it foxy when the wine came out like this - gross • Rum (byproduct of molasses) was big in north america — was associated with sailors - English colonies: beer (brewsters/ domestic). water. Puritans brewing came back and was done again by women • fear of water- a lot of water was considered to be bad- the debate between doctors • • a lot of them thought water was not safe and not natural but beer was the natural beverage and in france wine is the natural beverage but by 18th century they say yes water should be consumed but now the temperature of the water is coming into play— should it be cold or should it be room temperature etc • water was a huge topic throughout time • water smells • safe, filtered water was developed for delivering? - Drinking patterns: colonial and indigenous populations, slaves • younger people don't drink as much as adults • women drink less then men • drinking amounts and how many were drinking is all guess work, whats the population of people drinking etc- he has said this before 4 Monday, February 6, 2017 • the new worlds created new alcohol culture patterns • colonial came in and exposed the indigenous populations • the church didn't have as much influence - also because people were living in very isolated conditions (traders etc) they were heavy drinking men because they were away fr
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