Lecture 5 Tuesday, October 8, 2013
• **Reminder: mid-term test in two weeks! It will be 6-7:30pm.
o T section: will take place in a different room—CUOL will say where
o It’s 90 minutes long, short-answer (no multiple choice/definitions)—1/2 paragraph
answers per question. There’s no choice in the questions—you answer all of
o There’s nothing really specific—not looking for dates or precise information.
o Today: spread of alcohol in South American world—don’t need to know dates, but
you can say that vines ar eplanted in South America in 1500s.
o **READ THE TEXTBOOK**
o Some questions might be analytical—how have men and women related
differently to alcohol? Different consumption patterns, brewing as a female
occupation that became male, etc. Lots of areas where you can point to
differences in gender…
o **LOOK AT THE THEMES, TAKE NOTES**
o He’ll try to make the test shorter this year…
• **Remember: the book review is due on November 8!!
• Tonight: alcohol in early modern Europe—focusing on 1500-1700/1800. Also the transfer
of Eruoean alcohol to non-European parts of the world (the New World)
o South America/Latin America
o North America
o Other parts of the world
• **First: alcohol in the place of Europe, 1500-1800 (early modern period)
o By 1500 and during the 1500s (16 century), alcohol was entrenched as part of
the daily diet for the great bulk of the population
o Generalization that everyone drank because water wasn’t safe. You’d make
water safe by adding brandy (kills off bacteria). While that’s probably true that
there was a cultural preference, a lot of people couldn’t afford to drink alcohol.
Water is free.
o The poor of Europe constituted big slice of population, couldn’t afford alcohol.
Drank water. Often contaminated, unsafe, bearer of epidemic diseases.
Contributed to low life expectancy of the poor in early modern period.
o (Also housing conditions, general health an d nutrition, but absence of alcohol
must have also contributed.) o Probably the majority drank some alcohol on daily basis. What the proportion of
water drinkers was, we don’t know. Probably varied from time to time and place
to place. Poor were not fixed proportion—they varied, depending on the harvest
(prices of grain are low/high)
o Maybe ¼ of population was poor—that ¼ could expand to 1/3 at times of crisis.
They probably drank water.
o But we want to think about the alcohol drinkers!
o For those who drank it, it became part of daily diet—mainly beer in north, wine in
south. Wine in the north was considered to be elite drink (had to be imported
from southwhere it grew)—differene in the cultural value of beer and wine. Even
in the south, probable that beer was minority beverage because wine was
produed very easily there.
o We don’t know anything reliable about consumption patterns—have to be careful
about per capita rates of consumption because they hide great variations among
group s within population—between men and women, adults and children. But
we have various estimates of consumption.
o Beer consumption (annual, per capita):
Leuven: 275 litres
Antwerp: 369 liters
Bruges: 263 liters
Ghent: 202 liters
Wismar (hospital inmates, 1600): 1095 liters
o Varied a LOT.
o Patients would have had regular supply—beer considered to be healthy,
nutritious, beneficial to the health. Would have been fed beer on regular basis in
o Everywhere else: 202-369 liters (half a liter-a liter per day)
o Hard to tell who was drinking, how much it was. Per capita doesn’t say the whole
o Case studies that give us a few insights into consumption
Diaries sometimes recorded what people ate/drank
• One prince wrote that a printer in London in early 1700s drank 6
pints of ale per day
• Fishers used to take about 240 liters of wine/cider per person for
the duration of the trip… **Venice, 1600s—in the Venice Arsenal
• This was the shipyards of Venice
• Reputable republic with a massive navy and shipyard (to maintain
the ships)—about 2,000 workers in the shipywards
• They expected to drink wine on daily basis
• For hydration and nourishment
• Authorities in the arsenal supplying considerable amounts of wine
to the workers. They eventually created a FOUNTAIN OF WINE!
Flowed from the tubes around, the wokers would fill up buckets
with wine from the fountains.
• Was said to be more hygienic than dipping form a trough of wine
(they put their hands in, etc.)—this was a way of providing the
workers with alcohol on safe basis.
• Got it as regular ration during the day, also extra rations after
finishing building a ship (about 2 liters per worker), also the
managers/administrators got bonuses in the form of wine (barrels)
• Interesting: the workers had very high status becase they were
employed in building ships ofr Venetian navy—had high
expectations for the quality of wine. Insisted on being paid in good
wine. Adminsitrators would go to south Italy to get better wine,
more substantial, more alcohol, better flavor.
• Wine onsumption went up considerably—some concern about the
amount of budget of arsenal being spent on wine. It was the
second most expensive item in the budget, next to the timber for
the ships. Everything else (Canvas, ropes, tar) required less of
budget. The Amount of wine being consumed was increasing.
• Mid-1500s, consumption was 2.5 liters per day.
• By early 1600s, 3.2 liters.
• Late 1630s, 5 liters.
• **per capita consumption had doubled in less than a century
• But it wasn’t just the wokrers—it was their families, other people
who wantered into the shipyards—didn’t keep control of their
budget, but also shows how central wine was to the workers.
Essential part of their cdiet.
• Was not discretionary as we think of alcohol now. We could do
without wine/beer, totally discretionary. IN this period, it was considered to be essential—intrinsic part of diet for
• By 1500s, alcohol was imbedded in the diets and culture of
• Europeans began to travel to other parts of the orld in 1500s
• Spread o the New Worlds—implications of European alcohol spreading there
• **altohough alcohol not originally European—earliest evidence of alcohol form China.
Earliest evidence of beer probably from Mesopotamia.
o Hard to track, unlike wine
o Beer was being made in a number of places
o But Mesopotamia typically though tto have best early evidence
• **Distilled spirits—somewhere in the Middle East—technique of distilling from there.
Some say Pakistan. But certainly not ERuopean
• But when we’re talking about alcohol by early modern period, we should think of it as
o In much of world wehre alcohol came from, there was prohibition (under Islam)
o Those areas that first produced alcohol were no logner permitted to
o Europe was major producer and consumer—alcohol was first entrenched as part
of diet on daily basis. It was them who first spread it to other parts of the world
o Also, certain patterns of consumption/attitudes that were intrinsically European—
these were transferred as well.
• From 1500, expansion of Europe
o Alcohol taken on long-distance voyages—problem to take food and drink in terms
of conservation—problem with maintaining good water supplies for crews
because it tended to foul in the dirty/infected barrels.
o Just putting water into barrel—tends to get tained with bacteria, slimy. Especially
in heat, when travelling through tropics. Water was green/red, smelled. Had to
force yourself to drink it.
o One solution: add some brandy to kill off bacteria—preservative. Keeps water
o IN addition, also a tendency to take alcohol as a drnink—wine, beer, increasingly
o Alcohol was important during the long-distance exploration, made it easier and
more feasible. • Transfer of alcohol knowledge/patterns of consumption/attitudes to indigenous peoples
in non-Europena world
o Contact with indigenous peoples
o Eventully, transfer of alcohol cultures
o Partly due to demographics
**expansion took place largely by adult males (15 years and over)—men
drank more than women.
Expansion of Europe by alcohol-drinking population
First contact of indigenous people would have been by heavy-drinking
demographic from Europe
Important for construction of alcohol cultures within settled populations,
also the transfer of alcohol cultures to native populations
• Expectations/needs of sailors (and later settlers):
o Most ships that set sail across Atlantic or further took on good supplies of alcohol
o 1630: Arabella ship (from Engalnd to Massachusetts) carried 10,000 gallons of
wine, 42 tons of beer, 14 tons of water, 12 gallons of brandy.
Not much water compared to the rest
Brandy probably used to keep water fresh
o Portuguese fleet ot India in 1500 (big fleet, going further) took 250,000 gallons of
wine for the crew, they were drinking 1.2 liters of wine per day.
o These voyages lasted 6 months—they might take on fresh water/fruit, but they
couldn’t take alcohol. So you needed all the alcohol to go there and back.
o Partly the reason for the beginnings of South African wine industry
Dutch (great shippers of 17 century, largest merchant fleet in the world,
carried a lot of wine and other goods around the world) used to sail from
Netherlands around Cape Verde, around Cape Horn (Dutch colony), and
then up to Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) for spices
One of longest regular voyages it he world in 1600s
Problems with maintining supplies of alcohol Planted vines in the Cape colony in South Africa, in 1650s. Planted them
to provide souce of wine that could be taken on halfway through the
voyage to Dutch East Indies and back.
Spread of viticulture from New World went from the Cape, by 1788 wen
tot Australia, went to eastern regions of Americas in 1600s, also through
• Europeans encountered pouplations that also had alcohol—almost all regions had some
o Often in very small quantities, for medicinal/ceremonial/religious purposes (not
daily consumption), but various kinds nonetheless
o All fermented (non distilled)
o Bottom of Africa (sub-Saharan)—drinks made from fermented cereals (kinds of
beer)—honey fermented (mead), fruit fermented (Fruit wines), sap from palm
trees (palm wine), milk fermented.
o For ceremonies, not regular consumption—not much was made. Athough some
regions of eastern Africa made more beer.
o When first Protuguese emissary arrive din the Congo area of Africa in 1491, the
chief/king gave him a drink of palm wine- -the Portuguese gave Portuguese wine.
o Use of alcohol in these areas: people used it in much the same way as
Europeans (ceremonial, hospitality), but not for hydration/as part of the diet
o Fourn alcohol in central and south America,
• made from manioc plant—grated and turned into a flour, baked,
then chewed and spat
• enzymes in your saliva turn the starch into sugar. Spit into a bowl
and it could turn into a fermtend drink
• Very laborious method of production, doesn’t give a whole lot of
alcohol, but it makes some
• For ceremonial purposes only
Other parts of central/south america:
• Alcohol made from fermented honey and tree bark
Andean regions (high regions):
• Beer made from maize A whole suite of beverages made in those areas, where Europeans
brought their own beverages
o Only place you didn’t find fermented beverages was North America, except for
some regions in southwest US, among native americans (spruce beer made from
trees—perhaps). Australia: didn’t produce any. Cold regions in the north: no
o But for most poart: Africa, Asia, south America—had beverages
• Spanish conquest of central/south America, beginning early 1500s:
o Invaded Mexico, came across indigenous population that drank PULQUE (made
from agave plant)—like tequila, but it’s made form a different variety of agave
o Made from the sap of the plant
o One agaveplant could produce liters of sap per day—over lifetime, 1,000 or more
liters. A plantation could produce a lot of alcohol
o The sap was fermented, produced milky liquid with around 5% alcohol (like a
beer). Rich in vitamins, reputed to be healthy. Only shortcoming: it had a short
shelf life (only lasted one/two days), had to be made on regular basis. When it
went off, smelled like a dead dog and was not attractive.
o Spanish tried to suppress consumption of pulque (and its production). They
thought it led to disorder, intoxication and problems. It became the drink of the
poor settlers as well—great fearof a mingling between poor settlers and the
o Particular concern about mixing pulque with certain herbs/roots. It was believed
that these roots made it a hallucinogen as well, great deal of coern bout this (like
o Sense that pure pulque was okay, but pulque mixed was a real problem.
o Writing: not only talking about mixing of substances, but also the mixing of
populatins. Want to keep Spanish population separate from indigenous
population. Idea of mixing applid also to ethnic groups in the Spanish colony
o The local government ran hot and col don it—sometimes okay, sometimes
o Eveything changed in 1650, began to tax it—when you tax it, it becomes very
good product. Government began to take in hudnreds of thousands of pesos
from pulque—decided it was very beneficial and healthy.
o But pulque wasn’t the alcohol they were most concerned about. The Spanish
wanted to produce wine there—important part of the diet in Spain. o The Muslims had been expelled from spain in late 1400s—we see the revival of
Spanish wine industry. During Muslim government in Spain, wine production
continued (and the government even taxed it, acknowledged the production), but
there was general orientation against alcohol. That ended with the expulsionof
o 1500s: Spanish wine industry took off—densely planted region.
o Spain: emergence of new kinds of alcohol in 1500s
• Fortified alcohol—made stronger with distilled alcohol
• In this case, it’s wine that has flavourless alcohol added to it (like a
brandy, but flavourless)
• After the wine’s fermented, they throw in alcohl to take the level
from 12% to 18%.
• **In south of Spain—in area called JEREZ. Sherry referred to as
“sack” sometimes. They began to add alcohol to it initially because
ti didn’t survive well when shipped. Adding alcohol meant it could
last longer. But that altered the drink entirely.
• Another fortified alcohol – made stronger with distilled alcohol
• But different because the alcohol is added during fermentation—
kills the yeasts doing the fermenting and stops fermentation about
halfway trhough. Half the sugar is left so you end up with
• Port is typically sweet and strong, about 20% alcohol.
• **From Portugal. Devised by British traders who wanted to bring
wine from south of Spain/Protugal to England, added wine to
enable ti to travel. But they created this new style of beverage.
• **Has to do with emergence of distilled spirits in 1500s, need to
transport wine over long distances, get the wine ther ein good
o Spanish were very important in 1500s. Vibrant wine industry, coming up with new
styles of wine (fortified wine). This was the drinking culture that the Spanish
armies brought with them to Mexico in early 1500s.
o They wanted to replicate their lifestyle/diet, even through they were in entirely
different climate, vegetation, etc. They took their animals and wine with them,
tried to set up farming, gardening facilities, eat the same kind of diet, also drink
same kinds of beverages. o Wanted to make wi ein Mexico. But you can’t, because of the climate. They tried
hard, planted vines in what is now Mexico City. 1520s-1530s: Spanish settlers
began to settle around Mexico City, required BY LAW to plant vines!! They were
given a certan number of Mexican slaves to wwork on their estates, for every 100
workers they were required to plant 1,000 vines.
o The vines all died because they were European vines—climate, pests, diseases,
etc. didn’t work.
o Had to import wine form Spain, but it had to travel long and didn’t last well.
o It wasn’t until they begant o expand empire down west coast of South America
that they had some luck. By the time they got down to Peru in 1530s, Chile in
1540s-1550s, Argentina 1560s.
o **PERU, CHILE, ARGENTINA: most important regions.
o Peru: most important of all
Odd because we don’t really talk much about it now…don’t find it a whole
It was the hot region in 1500s.
Within a couple of decades of planting vines: producing milions of liters.
Great wine source for much of Latin America.
o Chile: vines planted massively
1540s-1560s: many of the vines plante dint hat period were the best
regions for vines today.
They knew what they were doing—climate, soil conditions, etc.
o Argentina: Mendosa region
Stil the main region for Argentinian wines now
o **Well-placed vineyards. Viticulture and wine culture established very quickly in
South America. From 1520s/1530s/1540s (30-40 years), established in South
o Look at the progress of viticulture from Middle East to Greece/Italy—took
thousands of years!
o Vines were established for a number of reasons:
Supply settlers with wine for consumption
The churchwas prominent in this. Many people involved in identifying best
sites for wine production were priests/members of Jesuit order (went with
th earmy)—but wine not produced for communion because they only
needed a little. Communion wine only consumed by the priest. All this wine (millions of liters) was being produced for consumption by
people on a daily basis
A lot of it was later distilled because they made so much. Made into
brandy. Peru: major brandy producer.
o Peru is really interesting: take production of wine in late 1700s, put that on a
table of wine production today—it would be the 6 largest producer of wine
today!! MASSIVE! It’s odd because there’s virtually no wine industry anymore
(destroyed in 19 century).
o Wine producers of Spain were not happy
Late 1500s:lobbying government of Spain to stop wine production in the
They saw it as great exploit opportunity…but they saw how much the
settlers were making, iddn’t want that.
Philip II of Spain issued an edict—no more planting of vines…but they
o But it was at great cost of the indigenous population…great success
economically for the Spanish, though.
• **THERE WILL BE NO LECTURE AFTER THE TEST ON OCTOBER 22.
• North America
• Spanish successful at producing wine in Spain, but then they went to Central/South
America and produced millions of gallons of wine iwthin a few decades. Exciting for
other colonizing nations. The British: keen to produce their own wine in their own
colonies (particularly North America).
o Wanted it for the English population, they couldn’t produce that much in England
—mainly because they wanted to be INDEPENDENT. They were importing from
Spain, Italy, France, Germany. They wanted independence.
o British went to war with France because of aggressive policies of Louis XIV of