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Lecture 3

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HIST 3109
Roderick Phillips

Lecture 3 Tuesday, September 24, 2013 • The book is here! Catch up on the readings. • The test: if you’re in Ottawa, do the test at 6pm on October 22, in a different room. CUOL will e-mail the room where you’ll do the test. • The book review: thoughtful reading of a book, a reaction to the book. o First: read the book carefully. o Read the introduction (find the argument, the aim), go to the conclusion (what the author thinks he accomplished). o Writers don’t often write from beginning to end. They figure out the introduction at the end to state their argument, and the conclusion is not much different. o Middle: test the author as to whether he did what he set out to do. Look at the evidence, the way the argument was structured.  Ex. If they said they’d study alcohol among Native Americans, did they study all of them or choose certain communities? Were these good decisions? Were these communities representative of all Native Americans? th  Did they cover the whole period from earliest contact to 20 century? Or did they just look at 1600s, 1700s?  Is there evidence from government sources, does the author acknowledge that this could be biased?  How do they handle the difficulties of using evidnce, did the yuse it well? Did they use other types of evidence? o Get over the idea that you can’t criticize a professor’s book. Sometimes people make mistakes. o You can find other reviews of the book, can compare it to the rest of the literature to show whether it added something significant. It could place your book in context. o Could take up 1/3 of essay (1000 words) to describe the book—author sets out to argue this, he does it through this. The rest of the essay is analytical. o Read the book again quickly to make sure you haven’t missed anything. o **If time, give the professor a draft of the book review. If he gets it in time (like a week before), he’ll have a look at it and give some feedback.** • Middle Ages! • No fixed chronology. Somes tart in 500AD up to 1000AD. Distinction between Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages, Late Middle Ages. • We’re going to cover 500AD to 1500AD. • The church was important institution. Important to establish religious doctrines when it comes to alcohol—they’re so influential through to the 20 century. • They play a role indirectly in the development of alcohol policies, even when they’re brought by the state • Alcohol and religion o Alcohol played important part in Jewish ritual and imagery—wine was important, the grape vine is most commonly referred to plant and wine most commonly refered to drink. People don’t mention water in the Bible. Christ performed the miracle in order to avoid drinking wate.r o Wine became important in Christian ritual and symbolism—symbolized the blood of Chrsit, aprt of communion. o Very controversial within Christianity. o Other religions (Islam) rejected alcohol altogether. o Early Chrsitain church embraced alcohol. 16 century Reformation: Protestant churches embraced it but were suspicious in a way that the Catholics were not. Argument that Catholic church was lax when it came to morals: sexuality and drinking (closely linked). View that women drinking become sexual, but also men’s sexuality closely linked to alcohol. Protestant churches brought down more rigorous rules for consumption of alcohol. o Scandinavia and lower countries, northern Germany, Swtizerland, England— affected by this—Protestant. o Easy to maket he claim that Christianity had positive view of alcohol, but it’s not an unqualified positive view. There’s recognition that wine was important in the Bible and has close tie to Christ. At the same time, there’s concern about overindulgence. The Catholics and Protestants had belief that moderate drinking is okay but excess is bad. What they had different was what consituttes excess. o 19 century: Christian denominatiosn that rejected alcohol completely—Mormons (Church of Latter Day Saints), Jehova’s Witnesses, Christian Scientists. These are mainly American denominations. Rejected alcohol because they associated it with immoral, disruptive behavior. 19 century was the century of temperance and prohibition—much more restrictive laws on drinking, eventually prohibition in US and elsewhere. Cultural framework that was anxious about alcohol and fundamentally opposed. In the UK: Salvation Army also rejected it. o Christians anxious about alcohol had to deal with the fact that Christ turned water into wine. How do you square that circle? Christ turned water into wine, wine is sinful.  You could distinguish between making the wine and drinking it…  You could say not to read the story literally. Read it allegorically… th  **In the 19 century, they developed the two-wine theory: • When wine is referred to in the Bible in a negative way, it’s wine with alcohol in it. • When it’s referred to in a positive way, it’s not really wine at all. It’s grape juice. th  Ad from late 19 century, when Salvation Army, etc. tried to get mainstream churches (Catholic, Pentecostal) to stop using wine—move to grape juice instead. That’s because pasteurization occurred, it could heat grape juice and prevent it from fermenting.  Before pasteurization, grape juice would have almost always fermented. Given the climate in the Middle East, that grape juice would have fermented anyway unless you boiled the yeast away.  Anyway, the point was that the good wine in the Bible was grape juice and the bad wine was real wine. o The mainstream churches rejected this, but it’s important to remember that although prof mentions that Christianity embrace wine, that’s not necessarily so. • Early Middle Ages: emphasis on alcohol, particularly on wine, by the Church. o As Christianity spread through Europe, missionaries established churches, followings amongst Europeans—took wine with them o We can credit the Romans for spreading viticulture throughout Europe by 100AD, within 2-4 centuries of beginning of Christian era, Christian missionaries spread viticulture even more densely. There were vineyards in places like Spain, France, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Poland, as well as the areas where you’d expect vineyards to be (Italy and Greece). o Monasteries became important producers of alcohol from beginning of Christian era. Wine, but also important producers of beer. o Picture of monks bringing wine I nbaskets, other monks treading the wine. Many pictures of wine production in manuscripts and books. Reinforces the notion that the Church was very involved in wine production, more than beer production. o Importance of wine to Christianity has led some historians to suggest that drinking wine became symbol of conversion to Christianity. Many of the regions the missionaries penetrated were beer-drinkers. Conversion of Chirstianity meant that you stop drinking beer and move on to drinking wine. o That doesn’ts eem to be true. Monasteries made beer as well, didn’t look down at it or regard it as un-Christian. They privileged wine for symbolic or ritual purposes, but didn’t see beer as pagan. o But there was this fear around 500AD when the barbarians arrive din Europe. General image of the Roman/Wetern empire being invaded by barbarians: Gauls, Huns, Goths, Vandals. o Negative images that they gained as they entered into Western Europe. There was a fear that they’d sweep in, destroy the wine industry, drink all the wine, be unable to make any more, etc. o Unde these new states that were established by these central European population, viticulture flourished. They put in place legislation to preserve vineyards. Visigoths in Spain and Saxon sin England had legal codes (6 -8 centuries) protect the vineyards, punished anyone who destroys them. o Even the Vikings became important traders in the wine trade, began to control it in certain parts of Europe (like the Mafia). o Different picture from 500AD than people expected (weakning and destroying the wine trade)—surface of land covered by vineyards expanded during this period o But there was one difference, in terms of networks of commerce. During Roman period, there were systems of commerce—they broke down. Instead of one unitary empire,t here were larger number of smaller states, each of them dominated by these central ruopeans. Tended to inhibit development of trade links. o The barbarians didn’t do the kind of damage that everyone expected. o They did turn over these vineyards to the Church. Probably reinforced the role of the Christian church in wine production. o We know less about beer in this time—the records aren’t there. The monasteries, churches, cathedrals were much more interested in wine because they needed it fo rcommunion. o People made beer locally, in small lots, drank it frequently. o There was no beer trade. There could be wine trade because it lasted longer and could be transported great distances. Possible to move it in barrels and establish wine trade. Beer couldn’t last long, wasn’t worth transporting because people could make it anywhere. • Most people continued to drink beer o Especially Northern Europe o Didn’t drink wine all that much—cost of importing it o **division between northern (beer-drinking, later spirits-drinking region) and southern (wine-drinking, could produce more wine, people coul dmake their own or purchase/barter from neighbours) o Some wine consumption among the elites • Patterns of wine consumption—we don’t know how much wine/beer people drank. Especially beer because the records aren’t there. We don’t know how much beer they made, how much they had access to. o We know that nuns and monks had access to ration of alcohol on daily basis. Order of St. Benedict allowed daily measure of wine for each monk. But Benedict suggested that monks should not drink wine…at least agree to drink temperally. A hermina (0.5L) a day is sufficient for each. But those upon whom God bestows abstinence will have a reward. o Also had beer rations o Also recognition of medical advantages of wine—a monk who was sick got a second ration of wine. o But we don’t know the alcohol level—maybe 8-9%. It’s not the same as drinking 0.5L of wine today, which is 12-13%. o Skipping to 8 and 9 centuries: monks drank about 1.5L of alcohol a day each, nuns drank a bit less (1.38L). o We don’t know about the lay people…we have a variety of sources. Lay people drink between 0.6L and 2.3L of wine a day. Probably there was increase in alcohol consumption during festivities (parties, weddings, feast days). Probably less during periods of penance (reflecting upon sinfulness, like Lent). • Illustration of a monk going down to the cellar to get wine for dinner for his fellow monks. Filling a pitcher but also helping himself to some extra wine. o A reminder that even though the clergy were limited in the amount they were suppose dto drink, there was thougth to be a widespread drinking problem among the clergy. During penance,s they’re quite aware of drinking issues with the clergy. o **Penitentials: book. When Christians of this time did penance (confessed their sins at confession), priest told them what penance they had to do. These penitentials were guidebooks for priests, saying what the penance should be for each sin. Written by theologians, church fathers in early church, vary from place to place. o But there’s a general sense that some sins are worse than others. Drinking to excess is a sin—look at how they’re treated in pentitentials. Punishment for members of clergy was tougher than that imposed on lay people. They’re meant to be models to their parishioners. Expected to have geater self-discipline. o When it changes the state of the mind, and the tongue babbles, pain in the stomach…consume no wine or meat for three days if yo’re a layman. If a priest, seven days. If a monk, two weeks. If a deacon, three weeks. If a presbyter, fou weeks. If a bishop, five weeks. o Gradation of penances gets higher the higher you are in he clergy. o Another book from Spain: a cleric who got drunk was to do penance for 20 days. If he vomited, he was to do it for 40 days. If he vomited up the Eucharist by drinking too much at communion, penance for 60 days. o Laypeople: penance is half of what it is for a cleric. o Penances to do with alcohol are pretty severe. o Penitentials covered other areas of social life and social activity as well. Including sexual activity. Serious book in sexuality in Middle Ages—right in the middle is a chart! o Analysis of the penitentials and their policies on sexual activity. Feeling randy? Are you married? Is this your wife? Have you been married for more than three days (waiting period)? Is wife menstruating (unclean, dangerous)? Is wife pregnant (could cause spontaneous abortion)? Is wife nursing child (could sour the milk)? Is it Lent (penance? Is it Advent (penance)? Is it Whitsun week? Is it Easter? Is it a feast day? Is it a fast day? Is it Sunday? Is it Wednesday? Is it Friday? Is it Saturday? o ALL OF THESE were reputed to be days of penance in various places! o Is it daylight? Are you naked (only be as naked as necessary)? Are you in Church (there was no privacy, everyone knew everything that was going on…the church was the one private place, place to store firewood and keep animals in the winter…sex in church was a major and frequent crime)? Do you want a child (that’s the only reason to have sex)? o THIS IS A SERIOUS MEDIEVAL HISTORIAN! “Go ahead! But no fondling, no lewd kisses, no oral sex, no strange positions, only once, try not to enjoy it, wash afterwards.” o **Gives you a sense of where the penitentials came from. These were the rules that people lived under. You could see the same with alcohol—there were strict rules, great deal fo socith surveillance. Very little privacy—that’s a prtty modern concept. Not until late 18 century that we really get sense f privacy. You see it in the structure of houses. Before late 18 century, to get to one room, had to go through all the other rooms. Privacy: had a hallway. Could go from one room to he other without going through the middle room. o **These rule sdealing with alcohol were ones that people had to pay attention to. The priest that doled out the penances were entitle dto do so…in the assizes, we see drinking to excess/blaspheming were common. Prominent in 16 century when they impose more rigorous legislation (Protestant), even more in America when they set up institution called the Tithing Man (good man in community who had to report on the sexual/drinking behaviours of families, report to the authorities). Sense of public surveillance. • High Middle Ages (from year 1000) o Tipping point in European history—climate change. Europe got warmer. o When a river freezes over for the first time, people write about it. When glaciers retreat or go forward, people recod it. Tree rings very important— historicorhododendrology… o Each tree ring: growing season. Can tell what kind of growing seaon it was base don the darkness, width of the ring, etc. o Crops, harvest dates—when the grape harvest is early, we know it was a hot summer. When it happens late, we know it was cool—had to leave the grapes much longer. o **”Climate Since the Year 1000”—things begant o warm up at year 1000.  Grdual increase in warmth over the year. Crops could be grown for the first time in areas that had been too cold.  **climate change, not global warming  Grain grown even more widely, grapes could also be grown in new regions—in England, northern Europe o At the same time as this climate change na dpotential increase in wine/beer production, increase in population  Grew from about 1,000 up to about 1,350 until the Black Death. That cut the population by about 1/3, then it grew from about 1520 upt o 1600.  This perio dis important.
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