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Lecture 6

Lecture 6

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Carleton University
HIST 3109
Roderick Phillips

Lecture 6 Tuesday, October 15, 2013 • **Lecture: “Grub and Grog: Food and Drink in History” o Shannon Lecture series on history of food/drink, they’re every Friday. Last Friday was on history of Mexican food. Another one this Friday on margarine—very interesting subject, big history. o The lecture next Friday: food in the early modern period (the lecturer also th th teaches alcohol). November: taverns and drinking culture in 18 and 19 century Canada. Last one: indigenous peoples’ foods in western Canada. o Great series of lectures if you’r einterested in food as well as drink! • Test: next week (Tuesday) o Section T, last name A-Ha: room SA 306! o 90 minutes long, 6-7:30pm, no lecture after o All short-answer questions. 12 questions, have to answer all of them. That works out to spending about 7.5 minutes per answer—nothing very extensive. o Some questions are worth 10 marks, some are worth 5 marks. So spend more time on the questions that are worth 10 marks.  If a question asks for three reasons, you get 10 points. Not necessarily writing more points for questions that are worth more marks. Just try to pull some examples (from middle ages, 18 century, THROUGHOUT the course). Spread your examples.  For final example, WILL be required to draw form three periods for your examples. o Focus on lecture material, it’s cool if you can support it with material from the textbook as well. • Book review—due November 8 (Friday) o It’s not an opportunity to summarize the book. That should be 1/3. The rest should be analysis of how successful the book is. o Prof will look at a draft/outline, but he’ll have to have it about a week before it’s due. o Prof is going to be away, so e-mail the draft. He’ll make sure that he has it back with comments on the Monday. • Alcohol in the New world (last class)—transfer of European alcohol to the new worlds— Spanish in South America and British in North America. o Looking at how it was transferred, the chagn etha ttook place in alcohol cultures o The cultural frameworks in which alcohol was consumed o New cultures developed. Quite clear that we can pin it down in the case of British North America o Instead of beer and wine, Americans drank beer and spirits. They couldn’t make their own wine, difficult to get wine across he Atlantic safely and in good condition. • Now: eighteenth century, early nineteenth century (in Europe, also North America) o **This includes some material the prof would have delivered next week o Eigtheenth century: changes in alcohol. o New alcohols emerged—entered mainstream drinking cultures. FORTIFIED WINES. (Wine with eau de vie added. Eau de vie was not the same as brandy, it was colourless pure alcohol, meant to add to drinks and not be drunk on its own.)  Port  Madeira  Sherry • Port: initially in 1600s o Eau de vie added to stabilize it—alcohol is a preservative, make things last longer o Was meant to stabilize it for shipping/transportation o When British begant o get wine from Portugal in 1600s, they found it was spoiled by the time it got to British ports. They added alcohol to it. We don’t know how much they added, but we think that by early 1700s, around 3% of barrel was alcohol. o By mid-1700s, they were adding 10% o By late 1700s, they were adding 17%. Like a high-alcohol wine today. o Proportion went up. Port got stronger during the 18 century. Now it’s even stronger, around 25%. o Port is an interesting drink, associated with the British (the ones who invented the drink, they were the ones bringing it from Portugal). Most big port houses have English names, and there aren’t many Portuguese-owned port producers. All initially founded by English merchants. o Very popular on English market because it was flavourful, very sweet—they liked sweet drink. Also, high alcohol. o But it wasn’t cheap—confined to the elites. o Real problems:  Port took off in end of 1600s. By early 1700s, demand for port in England was so high that producers couldn’t make enough to meet demand  Began to counterfeit port. Counterfeiting is a huge global business, also big with expensive, luxury wines. Now, about 40% of luxury wine in secondary markets (auctions) is counterfeit wine. Canadian ice wine is very widely counterfeited—take cheap wine and stir in a lot of sugar, that’s it!  Instead of using port from the region where port came from (Douro valley in Portugal, the end of that valley is called Porto—that’s where all the warehouses came from), producers began to counterfeit wine. Brought grapes from all over Portugal, Spain, wherever they could get it. Added sugar to make it sweeter, added crushed elderberries to give it more colour, added spices like cinnamon and ginger to give it more flavor.  Once it was realized that this fake wine was being brought to England, sales dropped. 1728—British imported 116,000 hectalitres. By 1744— fallen to 87,000. 1756, fallen to 54,000.  Imports fell by about 50% in about 30 years.  Price of port on the market fell dramatically. In late ‘30s, barrel would have been worth 16 pounds. By early 1750s, worth 2 pounds.  This was bad news for port merchants and also for the Protuguese government (losing taxes that they could levy on these exports).  They created WINE LAW, an APPELLATION (French for “a name”)— when we refer to appellation, we refer to provenance (where soemthign comes from). Wher does Champagne come from? Champagne. Where does Bordeaux come from? Bordeaux. These are appellations. The wines reflect their appellation by carrying their names. But you can have a generic wine (a Chardonnay) that comes from California, but if it comes form California it’s going to say tha ton the bottle. The bottle has got to carry an appellation on it.  Appellations go further than alcohol—they go to cheese (every France cheese like Brie, Camembert, etc. named after where it came from; Cheddar cheese comes from Cheddar…but those people decided not to enforce the appellation)  Important in food and drink, but they became particularly important in the th 20 century. For the longest time, they were important but ignored—you could buy “Hardy Burgundy” from California, South African port from somewhere else. The appellations weren’t enforced, but from about 1980 onwards they begant o enforce them to the pont at which Neapolitan pizza has been claimed by the people of Naples. You can still make Neapolitan pizza, but it has to follow certain regulations—crust made with certain flour, certain cheese, certain varieties of tomatoes on it. Unless it satisfies these requriements, can’t be called Neapolitan pizza.  This will go on until states and coutnries and towns enforce their appellations.  **This was one of the very first appellations—the appellation of PORT. Government decided there was a crisis because of this counterfeit, losing income—causing problem for Portuguese economy. Created a port region —this is the appellation that port would come from. If your vines ddin’t grow form that region, couldn’t be called port.  When you make an appellation, you tend to limit the amount that can be made, that doesn’t allow for the region to grow. The law sets down a region in which you can grow grapes to make port.  They banned elderberries—those were used for deepening the colour. Had to rip out al lthe elderberry bushes from the region.  They banned the addition of spices like cinnamon and ginger (for flavouring).  **One of the FIRST WINE LAWS. Now, wine and food laws are very important. This guaranteed for the consumer that when you buy port, you’re getting genuine port. Later, provided official stickers to go on port bottles so you could sell the wine. o Port became much more popular after this. By end of 1700s, English were again importing huge amounts of port. Enoguh by 1800 for 6 bottles per capita for whole English populatin—about 60 million bottles being imported per year. o Of course, when we say 6 bottles per capita, we don’t mean that everyone was drinking 6 bottles. Children weren’t drinking it, women weren’t really drinking it—it was mainly male drink, for upper-class and middle-class males. o Strong relationship between port and masculinity. The more you could drink, the more masculine you were.  Of course, this is still going on now, but this was almost institutionalized in England with port in the 1700s  Men expected to be “3 bottle man”. Expected to drink three bottles of port at one session, remain standing and reasonably articulate at the same time.  Bear in mind that there’s less alcohol in alcohol then (14-16%) than there is now (about 20%).  Also the size was different—bottles weren’t standardized until 1820s- 1830s. Bottles were individually blown. They were as big as glass- blower’s lungs. They varied in shape and volume. So they oculd have been smaller than they are today.  Also, there would have been sediment at the bottom of the bottle and you wouldn’t have finished it.  So, three bottles would be impressive but manageable by a manly man.  Became matter of pride to drink more than three bottles. Some were reputed to be six bottle men—Prime Minister of England. University of Oxford prof was a 13 bottle man.  Quote from Dr. Johnson, 18 century scholar at Oxford—he said “Claret is the liquor for boys, port is the liquor for men…but he who aspire to be a hero drinks brandy.”  **Brandy was also used as a drink in its own right. We see a big increase in brandy production in west of France, early 1700s. The consumption of it likely increased dramatically. • Madeira o Fortified wine, made on island of Madeira o This is an appellation now o It’s usually pale with amber colour, made in same way as port and sherry— adding eau de vie to wine o Begant o add eau de vie to the wine of Madeira- -an island in the Atlantic, belongs to Portugal. The wine being shipped down to Africa or across to American colonies was going bad in the barrels. Added eau de vie to preserve it. o But for some reason, the wine wasn’t off-loaded when it got to destination. It came back from destination. And when they tasted it, they found it was even better than it was when it left. They didn’t know whether it was the heat, or the rocking effect on the ship. They kept the wine for extra period on Maderia, simulated the heat and rocking of trans-Atlantic voyage (left barrels out on the sun, had slaves rock the barrels). Created a different kind of beverage. o Similar to sherry. o What makes it differtn from port is that it’s slightly oxidized—oxygen had chemical reaction, created oxidized flavor. Oxidation is often not a good thing with wine, but in certain cases like sherry and Madeira, it’s part of the manufacturing process. o Madeira becam important in 1700s. Started off as a cheap thing, but by en do f18th century it was luxury beverage. Barrel of Maderia increased by 1600% over the course of the century. o Particularly popular in east coast of US, in the South (Charleston, etc.) o Sherry varies a lot. Can go from clear like water to black. Can go from bone-dry (puckering your mouth) to super sweet and rich (pours like molasses, like drinking raisin pie). Somwhere in the middle, there’s a sherry that tastes like Madeira. o **For the most part, Madeira was trans-Atlantic commodity while port was a European commodity. • 18 century: appear to have growth of heavy drinking by wealthy people o Exemplified by port o Maybe these people were drinking heavily all the tiem but no one cared. Either a new phenomenon or a new sensitivity towards an old phenomenon. Can’t be sure. o We see growing distinction between drinking by wealthy people an drinking by poor people. Move away from undifferentiated condemnation (in previous centuries, warnings against general excessive drinking). o We assume th atwealthy people could get away with it, but in the 18 century there’s this distinction o We looked at the gin craze of early 1700s—this was all about poor people, concern by the wealtyh and middle classes about poor people (and especially poor women). There was always that concern that alcohol in the hands of the poor is more dangerous. th o But in 18 century, we see rationalization for the different attitudes towards them. It was said that when poor drink, it tends to be socially disruptive. They drink out in public, tended to be socially disruptive. For that reason, heavy drinkin by the poor was matter of public concern. Law enforcers should be able to step in and control drinking by poor people. But wealthy people tended to drink privately in their homes (not taverns)—in the case of men and port, drank in their clubs. Quite different between them—public vs. private. o Drinking by poor in public places can lead to roudiness, disruption—needed to be controlled. Wealthy dirnking at home could be disruptive if they wanted to be, violent in subdued kind of way, but it was outside public view and not danger to public order. Could be just left. o Also general sense that when well-off people drank heavily, it was sign of moral weaknes,s no reason to punish people for it. When poor drank, they drank to get drunk and cause problems—could be prosecute for these kinds of acts. o Poor more likely to neglect families/responsibilities, drink the money that should have gone to provide for wives an dchildrne. o IN many cases, alcohol was implicated in not only public violence but also private violence. Look at divorce cases in France—many cases of family conflict and marriage breakdown had alcohol implicate din them. Many cases of domestic violence started with husband coming home drunk and beating her—also cases of men admitting they drank too heavily, this is why they became violent. o But you couldn’t get off a charge for being drunk—was seen as either rhaving nothing to do with the offence or being an aggravating factor. o On top of alcohol and workers, increasing concern about alcohol and the military. Soldiers and sailors had historically been given daily ration of alcohol by the beer/wine/spirits. o British army during 18 century—between early 1700s and 1780s, the soldiers got about 5 oz. of rum (2-3 shots), or about a gallon per month as standard ration. For celebrations, got additional rations. If the weather was bad or had hard duty, before going into battle—standard rations could double. o Could purchase additional alcohol from merchants. Armies were enlarged by followers—people who sold food/drink, prostitutes, etc. You have long crowd of additional people following the army. o Among these wer the victualers (sold food and drink) o No hard and fast volume that soldiers were able to rink on daily basis. Some counts of officers increasing the ration, a case of one officer selling men half a pint of rum per day—quite a lot. o Sailors at sea had even more—usually half a pint of rum diluted with water. That’s because they were at sea and couldn’t buy additional rations. They were given more. o Tasked to reduce intake of alcohol by soldiers and sailors during late 1700s and early 1800s. By 1830s, American army became first dry army in history. That doesn’t mean they didn’t drink—they oculd purchase it—but they weren’t given official ration. o When we get to WWI, the British and French, Germans, etc. all gave generous rations to their soldiers. o By 1916, most American states had Prohibition, so they couldn’t give soldiers an alcohol ration. But some generals allowed their soldiers to drink light beer. In WWII, it was more or less the same thing—light beer permitted. But it’s still a dry army. Most armies are dry now—no official ration. • American and French Revolutions—effect on alcohol because of taxation issues o Alcohol: means by which governments could raise huge amounts of revenues through taxation o Americans abandoned Prohibition in 1933 because they needed the taxation from alcohol (hudnreds of millions of dollars from taxes before 1920. By 1930s during Depression, they abandoned Prohibition for the revenues). o Historicall,y Prohibition was a problem. Russia started it in 1914, it was continued by Bolsheviks in 1917, but by mid-1920s, Soviet government begant o abandon it because they needed the money—legalized vodka for the taxation. No possibility of getting loans through itnernatioanl market.This money supported the 5-year program. o It was taxed and it was not taxed. System of taxation everywhere, but it was usually excise tax—taxed as it passed through certain borders. In France (before Revolution, there was no national market/economy…all the economies were regional and various provinces all had provincial governments…Burgundy, Bordeaux, etc.), if you wanted to ship anything by land across France, every time you crossed provincial boundary, had to pay a tax. To ship from Bordeaux to Paris, go across 3 or 4 boundaries, its value had increased maybe 4 times—it was sold to consumers for high price. France was series of regional economies. Wasn’t until Revolution that these boudnaries were erased and nation of France was created—freed up the market. French Revolution created first national market. o There was a lot of money to be made from taxation…Americans taxed alcohol and its production. o 1791: tax to enable federal government ot collect taxes on distilled spirits (from other countries). Spirits produced in US from imported ingredients (molasses) taxed at a lower rate. And spirits produced in US from local ingredients (completely domestic) taxed at even lower rate. Distinction between large and small brewers, too. o All spirit production was now to be taxed—very different. o Tax would prove to be very unpopular. The New Republic formed, needed money —taxed the production of ANY spirits, including spirits produced for domestic consumption. A lot of farmers used to make corn and produce their own corn whiskey (for their consumption or to trade with their neighbours). Government set up bureaucracy with tax inspectors, calculate how much was being made and impose a ta.x. o Whiskey Rebellion, 1794—farmers rebelled, attacked the offices of the alcohol tax, attacked some of the inspectors and bureaucrats themselves. The rebellion was put donw, but important reaction to this new kind of tax being imposed. o American Revolution: shift in drinking patterns from rum to whiskey. Rum was made from molasses, from British West Indies. War of independence: British colonies casesd shipping molasses (trade imbargo), Americans didn’t have ingredients to make rum. But there was lots of corn, could make whiskey out of it —became patriotic drink. Rum associated with imperialism… o French Revolution: see decrease in wine prices. 1791, the French eliminated their alcohol tax. Before Revoulition, sales taxes on all kinds of good (soap, firewood, wine). 1791, abolished these taxes, restricted system to get rid of sales taxes and create income taxes instead to raise the money. A large amount of price of wine before was taxes. o Before central taxes were abolished, epopel tried to evade the taxes. By late 1700s, a lot of communities just outside of the city walls—they were able to sell wine outside more cheaply because when alcohol was brought in, had to pay tax on it. But outside in cabarets, inns, etc., alcohol was cheaper. Migration outsid eon the weekends to drink cheap alcohol. City authorities sent navies to build new walls, bring them within boundaries so
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