Class Notes (806,507)
Canada (492,261)
History (652)
HIST 3109 (32)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10

15 Pages
Unlock Document

Carleton University
HIST 3109
Roderick Phillips

Lecture 10 Tuesday, November 26, 2013 • Book reviews will be ready next week—last lecture. • Final exam will be submitted electronically—etiher through CU Learn or dedicated email address. • Will give the final exam as early as possible. • Last week was Prohibition—even though we tend to think about American Prohibition, it was part of a more general phase of prohibition policies in many parts of the world— North America, Europe, indigenous populations in Africa • Was a fairly short phase • No example of prhibiiton to this period except for Islam o Successful o In place for more than a thousand years o Predominantly Muslim countries where it’s applied rigorously, others wehre it’s not. But since the Arab Spring, prohibition policies applied more strongly htan before. • Anyway, that’s the only exception. They weren’t really applied properly until about 1910. But they went off in about 1935 in just about every jurisdiction that had it. o Some U.S. states dind’t go wet until 1960s o But in national terms, American gave it up in 1933 o Canadian provinces from 1920s, 1930s o Various European countries (Sweden, Finalnd, Norway) in 1920s o Very short-lived experiment with prohibition. • Would have been very difficult to propose prhoibiton before late 19 century. That’s because alcohol was simply necessary. Water supplies not good, alcohol safer for hydration. Until fresh water supplies and other forms fo beverages arrived, couldn’t tell people to stop drinking alcohol. • Perhaps a logical step to go to Prohibitoin once alcohol is no longer necessary—no longer believed to be health-giving, therapeutic, necessary yto replace water (because clean water was availabile)—all you could say about it is that it’s intoxicating. • A lot could be said against it: o Caused health problems—liver disease, heart disease o Responsible for accidents o Criminality • There’s nothing good to be said for it, plenty of bad things to be said—just makes sense to get rid of it. That’s why prhiobitoin was imposed. • But it didn’t work—massive resistance from producers, mainly consumers. If there wasn’t this huge consumer demand, wouldn’t be illicit production, smuggling, etc. • By end of 1920s, towards point wher eprohition would be repealed, consumption had reached 70% of pre-prohibition level. Maybe it would have goen down but maybe would have risen to the same level again. That combined with the state’s loss of revenue from taxes convinced countries to abandon prohibition. • What happens when you have prohibition and then take it off? Or, int eh case of Britain where they didn’t have prohibition, hwat happens when you put regulatiosn to make alcohol to optain (WWI—limiting hours of pubs, that alcohol could b esold)? o These regulations were put into place 1910s-1920s and then relaxed. What happens then? o General thougth: can’t go back to situation before Prohibition o U.S.: repeal in 1933—the President Roosevelt announced the repeal but careful not to portray alcohol as a positive thing. Still warned about the dangers of alcohol, of going back to the old days. o Advised Americans not to go back to what the anti-alcohol lobby had called the worst aspect of the policies. “I askt aht no state should order the return of the saloon…” o Called the citizens to drink responsibly, prevent return to the “repugnant conditions” of before. o We want responsible dirnking, for people to be educated—more intensive education programs in schools. Geared to young children. o SALOONS—very difficult. What is it? A bar. The whole point is tha tit was a male bar, had reputation of being seedy, associated with crime/immorality/gambling/etc. He’s calling for more respectable drinking places. o Ironically, the most respsectable drinking palces were some of the speak-easies: lounges with music, entertainment, respectable people, etc. o Balancing act going on. o Didn’t want people to drink too much, but wanted people to drink plenty so they could get revenues from production an dconsumption. o There were taxes of $2.60/gallon on distilled liquor, $5/barrel on beer. o In 1936 (three years after repeal), taxes from alcohol made up 13% of all federal tax revenues. That’s including commercial taxes, personal income taxes, etc. o Prohibition was repealed by another amendment to the constitution. Left the situation the way it hd been before Prohibition—gave the states control over production and consumption. Controlled movement of alohol between states. o Many states that had had prohibition (remember, it was originally a state activity before national one) went on to allow alcohol. They could have decided to continue prohibition policies on state level btu they didn’t. o The appeal of Prohibition had waned a lot, attraction of getting state taxes. o Some of th eons that had it continued for 3-5 years. Mississippi was the last to give it up, in 1966. o A lot of thse went through phases—allowing light alcohol beer of 4%, low alcohol wine, etc. Phasing it in. General fear that, having been depried fro 13 years, people would just start drinking. o But that doesn’t make sense. People were drinking during Prohibition, there wasn’t a question of being deprived. • But we do see in the 1930s the emergence of waning of Prohibition o Women’s Christian Temperance Union—their numbers drop off. Used to have 2 million, by 1930s dropped to about half a million. Same with all anti-alcohol organizations. Real sense that prohibition had failed, people stopped agitating for prohibition or even temperance. o Decline in the intereste in temperance and prohibition policies. • At the same time, see the emergene of more positive view of alcohol hrough the 1930s. o Advertisements for beer, wine, and spirits begin to fill pgaes of newspapers. Through their support behind the repeal in the 1920s—that wa opportunity for advertisements. Alcohol advertising wasn’t as limited then as it is now. o Importance of alcohol advertisting—by 1935, 1/5 of display ads (the big ads, half- page or full-page) in New York Times were for alcohol. It was a boon to the newspaper industry. • Portrayal of alcohol in the movies. o Hollywood movie producers hae production codes—how they can depict certain activities, normally related to sex o There was a new code introduced in 1930 and then revised in 1934 (year after end of Prohibition) o You’d expect that production codes would have something to say about alcohol but there was nothing. No production codes in movies even after Prohibiton came off. o The stress was actually on sexuality. o The movie Casablanca—two main figures (Humphrey Bogart, owner of a bar, and Ilsa, who’s with someone else)—implication that Rick and Ilsa might have had sex at some point in their relationship, but this was more explicit in the early version fo the movie and they had to make cuts. o But lookat the movie—set in a bar, with people drinking and gambling, drinking all the time and too excess—no concern about drinking (positive), but concern that two married people might have had sex. o The concern about alcohol didn’t flow into the film production industry. • New drinking cultures that developed during Prhibitoin: speak-easies, domestic drinking o Those were the two options available o They continued afterwards o New culture of doetic drinking o Cocktails became popular as domestic drinks o Women’s magazines give tips on how to serve cocktails for dinner parties o More ready acceptance of alcohol consumption generally, seent o be as sophisticate,d not associated with seedy saloons and criminaly but middle-class. o Speak-easy went public as the cocktail lounge, the supper club. These had none of the assoations of the saloon. They wer eplaces wehere men and women could socialize without any hint of scandal. o New attitude towards alcohol in the US following Prohibition, right after the end o fit in 1933. o SHouldn’t generalize—there were some not-so-elegant bars still. o Also, many people abstained from alcohol. o Look at alcohol consumption today—20-25% of American adults never drink. Same here in Canada. For religious reasons, health reasons, reasons of preference. o Although we talk about acceptance of alcohol, there’s a good proportion ht never drinks. • Canada after Prohibition o Series of provincial liquor monopolies—province-operated retail outlets: LCBO, SAQ, BCLBB, etc. o They weremeant to be only way in which people could buy alcohol o They’re still here. Only one that left was Alberta—privatized sale of alcohol. o But the rest of provincial systems are still existant. o There are also private stores/retail channels that compete with the provincial stores. o But the whole system is controlled by province—the number of competing private stores is limited. o We have Wine Rack, Beer Stores, other winery stories, and online systems for purchasing alcohol. o These provincials troes were established at various times in 1920s and 1930s. the aim was to control alcohol. Alcoholw as permitted but they wanted to permit the flow of it. o Punched Drunk—used passbooks to control flow of alcohol, who could purchase it through the LCBO—system used up to 1960s. o Similar system as the one introduced in Ontario was in other parts of Canada, they came off at certain times. o Not until 1990s that the stores like LCBO became like the stores they are now— very attractive, consumer-friendly stores where the sale of alcohol is normalized instead of being treated like something slightly shameful. o Made anyone feel a bit like a criminal for buying alcohol before the 1990s… • Europe o Western democracies between the wars—they had introduced restrictive policies (not prohibition, though) during WWI because they could. o Wanted to limit access…took opportunity to impose these policies during wartime o Limited opening ours of bars, lasted up to 1990s and into this century o Abolition of absinthe in France o Restriciton of all kinds of alcohol in Italy and Germyn druign the war o 1929—British government set up royal commission to study licencing laws and socio-economic impact of alcohol consumption. o Shows us the place of alcohol in this society at this time. o This commission wasn’t set up because there was a sense of crisis/emergency, but simply because they waned to get a picture of alcohol in Great Britain. If we look at per capita consumption in 1929, it was lower than it had been in 1889. Actually went downin spirits consumption from 1 gallon per capita to ¼ gallon. Beer consumption was half what it had been. Real slide in consumption. So there’s no alarm. o Commission presented very positive picture of the way the British drank— recommended maintaining limits on opening hours of pubs because they couldn’t’s see any reason to change them. Commissioner in London said they could increase opening hours and it wouldn’t make a difference because British are good with their drinking habits. o Commisioer said decrease in drunkensess, singled out young people for dirnking responsibly. o Taxation contributed to this, bevergaes generally had lower alcohol levels, unemployment (1929) was high and played a role, people didn’t have the mone to spend on alcohol, people had to deal with machines and needed to stay sober. o All these contirubte to lower alcohol consumption. But nonetheless this is a godo thing—congratulated young people and said drunkenness has gone out of fashion. But they still recognized that some people got drunk—recommended closing some pubs, improving the character of pubs so people behae better, more alcohol education. o We do see a shift in the drinking culture that prefigured and followed these recommendations. o \at this time we see new pubs being built—by highways, bigger, more comfortable, in Georgian/Tudor style, many had dining rooms with high quality food (chefs from London, wanted to promote the food too), and in the long hours when alcohol wasn’t available they would serve non-alcoholic beverages. o Many had lounges that were carpeted, had pictures, comfortable furniture, made to look like middle-class living room. See a movement between private and public here. The pubs begint o mirror the private dwellings. The lounge in a pub mirrored the living room in someone’s home. o Partly to make these road houses more appealing, als to make women more comfortable. Recognition that womenw ere significant consumers, needed to cater to them. o Thse spaces begant o be feminized—letter from Whitbread (big English brewer) about the pubs that served alcohol: they needed a clean sweep, ficed furniture, getting rid of works of art like race horses and statesmen. Getting away from these masculine items, want more feminized look. o Many were off highways/bypasses, aimed to cater to the motorized public. During 1920s, car ownership went up dramatically everywhere ein Europe and North America. o England: 1925, there were 580,000 cars on the road. By 1939, there were 2 million. o Middle-class public, motorized. More mobile owners made up significant clientele. They’d break wawy from tradition of going to local pub and they’d drive into the country, drinka t road houses. o Road houses designed to appeal to affluence—luxurious, swimming pools, restaurant, dance floors with bands, encouraged to dress well, alcohol served throughout (especially cocktails) o Not the kind of risqué cabarets that you find in parts of Eurpe (Germany). But they were also slightly dangerous places—living on the edge if you spen the day eating, drinking, dancing there. o Places where men took women who werent’ their wives, drank to excess, there were drugs. Edgy quality to many of these road houses. o But you’re a long way form the pub—smoky, drab, noisy, people drinking beer. Diferetn culture, clientele. o Issue of drinking and driving—these road hosues were only accessible by road and they didn’t offer accommodation. Nowehre you could sleep after a night’s drinking. But interesting that in the 1929 report, there are 15 lines devoted to drinking and driving. o Records of raod accidents—numbers were going up considerably. They don’t attribute the cause to anything, but they suspect it has to do with drinking. o But there’s nothing about drinking and riving—all they say is the bus drivers shouldn’t drink while on duty. o While there are laws against driving while intoxicated from 1920s, the issue is not seen to be important until 1930s and 1940s. o 1930s: Swedish scientist came up with Breathalyzer to measure blood alcohol levels, but that didn’t make sense to people because they couldn’t agree on what was a good blood alcohol level. o Ironically it was the Nazis who began to use breathalyzers systematically for the first time. Not widely used by police in Canada until 1970s. o Another recommendation by British commission: there should be stepped up program of alcohol education. o Look at North America, Europe, South Africa, etc.: education on alchol was quite significant. Possible to look at the books they used, what they were teaching. o First English schoolbook on alcohol published in 1909—very heavy-handed approach. Very moralistic. o Revised in 1922—moralizing disappeared, became very scientific. Almost incomprehensible to the students it was meant for. Drinking responsibly protrayed as part of general exercise of self-discipline needed for healthy life. Dry, technical book, limited to physical effects of alcohol on body. Emphasis that it was not food, no nutritional value, but its effects on nervous system could be mitigated by drinking diluted alcohol/having food with it. Implication that alcohol is bad for you. o By early 20 century, have gotten away from historic situation where alcohol was nutritioius, beer more nutrious than bread. Alcohol has become useless commodity in terms of nutrition and health. o Plenty advice in books on alcohol: American example from 1930s—plaes abuse of alcohol on same plane as the abuse of food. You drink as you live. If you’re a person who does things to excess, you’ll do everything to excess, that includes eating and rinking to excesss. o General sense of holistic person within which your consumption of alchol could be placed. o This was published in 1930s—says they weaken and disease their body by developing taste for salt, spice, vinegar, coffee, etc. This leads to secret and social vice (masturbation), prepare the person for intemperance, lead to wreck and ruin. o The way you handle food will condition your whole life—you’ll abuse yourself and everything that you do. Terrible warning for children. o What is true of eating is also true of drinking… Pure water is the best form of drink, never take intoxicating drink, look at the ruin caused by rum. o 1930s: kind of an acceptance of alcohol, it’s much more normalized than it had been before Prohibition, but there’s a caution about alcohol as well. Don’t want to ban it, but you have to treat it responsibily. • France
More Less

Related notes for HIST 3109

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.