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HIST 3209 (11)
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Lecture 3

Canadian Urban History Week 3 Lecture 1.docx

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HIST 3209

Canadian Urban History Week 3 Lecture 1 th Jan 20 2014 Transportation Infrastructure and Urban Growth 2 TA: Christina Williamson Email: [email protected] Last Week recap • Ottawa, as a small city, only follows part of the Jackson’s model for larger cities • Some of those were adopted but didn’t have a huge impact on the distribution of space within the city o i.e. horsedrawn trams didn’t have much of an impact o streetcar did create streetcar suburbs and classic American suburb o the electric streetcar led development into the suburb rather than following it o entrepreneurship important here • not only were streetcars built onto the countryside, but they also participate in that growth of urban growth themselves through their partners – The Ottawa Land Association • other landowners also took advantage of streetcar to try and lay out subdivisions • Competition between two groups of businessmen The ‘Power Struggle’ • Ohearn vs McGee on the Quebec side • CPR leased along road and introduced on the north shore of Ottawa • They built Victoria park in Aylmer (had waterslides) – that stimulated the Britannia line and the park • Hull Eletric Company also tried to run cables under the river to provide electricity to Ontario o Efforts defeated by the House of Commons Railway community – Ohearn had many liberal political friends • Ottawa Car Cmpany owned by Ohearn too o They made money off the streetcar in everyway imaginable – not achieved in any other eastern Canadian city • The OER implemented in Britannia park Automobile • Largely were owned by rich people • Farmers would also adopt cars to go into the city • Farmers also found other uses for it – not something that the car companies anticipated but they began to promote alternative uses of their engines Assembly-line production and proliferation • Produced by Henry Ford • Idea of the assembly line was done by Frederick W. Taylor – he identified the motions involved in a production process and timed how long each one took • Instead of a small team of men producing a car, they put the tasks on a conveyor belt to speed up production o Also cut costs • The farmers in 1914 Saskatchewan ahd the largest number of automobiles per capita • After WWI, the car became more popular too • By 1920, Canada had caught up to a large degree, were in third place in 1929 for most owned cars o Would increase 10-fold six years later o o 1930 – 1 000 000 automobiles • Traffic census would show the increase in travel – useful o Counts how many vehicles went by a specific intersection o Bloor & Dundas in 1914 – 200 horse carriages o Bloor & Dundas in 1923 – 14 horse carriages o Increase of cars from 1400 to 2100 o Reflects the farmers’ ability to come into town but also the ability of urban folk to drive out into the countryside • 1920s – various service clubs were holding meetings t try and get urban and rural people together Centralized Funding for road improvements • Increase in the volume of traffic also saw the provincial government tka ea greater role in the costs of road development and maintenance o Always had been some activity by the government but most of them were developed through a process of statued labour  Basically a law says that every farmer has to provide so many days work on the roads per year  A man would usually be hired to do that work for them • toll roads also developed to macadamized roads o doesn’t impose taxes on population for it • statuted labour and toll roads not seen as adequate for the extent that paved roads for cars needed • Highway Improvement Act in 1900 o Paid a third of the cost of the county road systems o Reflects the argument that it isn’t fair to impost on the local farmers and townships through which a highway that was increasingly used by traffic  Why should a farmer have to improve a road that is used often? o County begant o subsidize road development o Also replaced statute labour with cash tax?? • Up until WWI, cars were still regarded as playthings of the rich – the amount of serious effort that was put into highway development was limited o i.e. signage between urban centers wasn’t done by the government but by private clubs (i.e. Motorleaf?) • as the volume of car-usage increased, so did the need for signage • horse-drawn vehicles stayed in service for milk distribution for a long time – up to 1980s in Sweden • 1915 – directional signange improvement by the government • 1919 – federal begins to subsidize highway departments • 1925 – licenses subject to a fee and gasoline imposed • Highway improvement had been set up in the 1890s o Wanted to increase the capacity of farmers to bring their goods into the market o Better roads = better efficiency • Farmers would often leave the day before the market and would have to stay overnight Impact on City Form A) Ribbon Developmetn and Roadside Attractions • 1920- car impacted the social geography of Canada first; ribbon development was where it was felt directly in the physical geography • Ribbon development – long strips of development that happen along the main access roads • Other businesses that would begint o develop on the access roads were motor courts – the predecessor of the motel o Like a series of cabins • Similar things happened along Richmond Road – i.e. Fraser’s Inn, and the Town & Country Restaurant • Teskey’s Terrace Hall on the Prescott Highway (Prince of Wales Drive) o Had tea rooms with dancing • While these road side facilities were initially intended for travellers, they became popular fro young people from the city to go out and party • Automobile is a metaphor for freedom • Suburban roads commission not only funded by suburban municipalities but also funded with the taxes from City of Ottawa o Showing that urban residents would also use these roads • Ribbon becomes quite apparent in the 1920s • Businesses that relocate serve travellers , but there was also many businesses that needed a lto fo land • Took a while for businesses to move out into the suburbs however o Automobile related businesses and their operations outwards – could be essay topic B) Corporate consolidation • Fast food and motels taking place in US in 1920s • Trend that hits Canada only after WWII • Hits suburban Ottawa in 1950s • Easy to exaggerate these trends even in the U.S. C) Neighbourhood Shopping Plazas • Country Club Plaza 1922 – image shown • The shopping centers as we know them were slow to develop – the Countr y Club Plaza is known as one of the first in the U.S. o High scale resdientail compelx went with it • WWII – most America cities yet ot have a shopping plaza • One of the big problems of building the centers was the huge capital investment it took – took quite a bit of time to get back the money from rents • Cheap eateries came to be consolidated early on o i.e. White Castle Hamburgers  the frist fast food chain in Wichita, Kansas in 1921 o was built with the intention fo increasing and multiplying it • 1961 – Kim’s Burger on Merivale road – the farmer who opened, Don Fraser, this started a business o Provided services that would later be run by multinational chains o Opened gas stations and more burger chains • Richard Harris in Creeping conformity ntoes that the car didn’t have a large impct on suburban development until after WWII o Streetcar was the dominant form of transport for most people o Was way more affordable for people than automobile • End of s
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