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Lecture 4

Week 4 Lecture 1 Planning Neighbourhoods.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 3209
Professor
B.S.Elliot
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 4 Lecture 1 Planning Neighbourhoods, cities, and capitals Feb 3 2014 Planning neighbourhoods: elite enclaves to ideal suburbs Vernacular city did have planning – focus on panning the neighbourhood and a focus on Harris’ idea of the elite enclaves; the traditional suburb • Suburbs in 1960s – a realization for the many • Suburb is a place and also an idea • Suburbia is a low density middle or upperclass area for commuters; rather green with large houseson the edge of a city • Ideal suburb as a product of 200 years, but only the past 50-60 years saw it as a reality • Modern suburb is also a state of mind • Advocates about it connecting to nature, or for others, it connects towards the city • Modern suburb as anti-modern reaction to industrial city o Idea of the suburbs (19C) o Transportation revolution  realization 1960s o Began to disappear within a decade because of rising land servicing costs o 1980s – a second anti-modern fourer into the past; the small country-town became the model  New Urbanism o This gave into less utopian conceptions such as smart growth and intensification o Ideal suburb for most of tis history was really one type of suburb – the ‘Exclusive enclave’ termed by Harris o Edinburgh in Scotland  Originally just one long street  Narrow lanes running at right angles of it – became the residence of hundreds of families in the side streets  Its compactness was due to the limits of walking as the only transportation – poor lived on the side and outskirts  Cities often grew in ribbon development o Montreal 1757  Original town within defensive walls – the extensive suburbs developed outside the gates of the city  Developed somewhat organically along major axis roads o As cities grew, there was concern of public open space – open space as a luxury for the rich  i.e. gardens in Georgians squares o Park – originally meant the pleasure ground attached to wealthy estates  Hyde Park in Toronto • History of the idea: o The old walking city and the working class suburb o Cemeteries and parks (Frederick Law Olmsted)  Prototype of the park as the pulic cemetery – i.e. Mt. Auburn Cemetery Cambridge, Mass 1831  Row cemeteries began an important place to come and visit, enjoy the monuments and trees  Eventually they wanted to do this without the dead people – city park developed  Most famous of city parks as Central Park in New York by Olmsted  Departed from the geometric, French landscape design – more natural  Exclusive suburbs would grow out of these more natural parks – curvilinear road ways, enhancement of natural features  Olmsted set this standard  First Canadian city park: Mcdonald Park in Kingston that had been a former military ground – 1853 it was turned over  These parks were oasis from the overcrowding – not really solutions to the overcrowding  The ideal of the country estate – instead of laying villas along the main axis, the idea became laying out a small subdivision like a park  1850s, Downing’s work of aying out houses was influential  Downing’s idea was a large par that would be owned in common by the villas known as Residential Parks o Roadside villas o Residential parks (Llewellyn Park, N.J. 1853 – 57)  A picturesque ravine is laid out as a park with wandering pathways  Around it, there are a series of large residences (private) o Exclusive Enclave (Riverside, Illinois 1868)  Laid out on the railway, nine miles west of Chicago by Olmsted  These were commuter suburbs  Plan is different – Olmsted found that Downing’s parks lacked privacy  Has a number of small parks dispersed through the plan  House plots not standard since they don’t follow a grid pattern – each family provided with a little property  Curvilieaner street pattern and attention to nature is what distinguished these suburbs in later generations  First Canadian plans of suburbs from Riverside – i.e. Rosedale • Ideal vs. reality – Canada c.1900 • Early Canadian examples o Rosedale, Toronto, 1854 – English roots: Park Village (John Nash 1823)  Based off the Riverside plan  The only problem is that it was actually surveyed in 1854 making it a contemporary with Llewelyn park rather than Riverside  Where did the planning model actually come from? For both Canada and U.S.?  Answer in the newspaper about the property of Rosedale  Advertisement on Rosedale talks about natural beauty, gentle slopes, trees, winding roads, etc – based off suburns in London  Development of Riverside also influenced by London  This English park is actually Regent’s Park in London by John Nash • Large stuccoed terraces of rowhousing • Attraction fo Regent’s park for the wealthy is that the terrace house would face onto this open parkland • Expensive • Model also adopted in Princess park, and Birkenhead park  1823 – Nash laid out the lot of Regent park for single family along a winding road  Rosedale – the lots sold slowly; difficult to sell because the Toronto women felt that it was too far out and were afraid they wouldn’t be able to get maids  1860s – horse drawn carriage though  It shows that in this period, there were still opportunities to build large houses in downtown Toronto  1865 – most of the Rosedale property was let out as a commercial pleasure ground – became a outdoor privately owned park until there was enough demand to buy the house lots  1903 – Community formed an association – managed to build a vision for the subdivion o Park Village East & West 1870 – single family homes along this roadway o Park Village East – John Nash 1824 o Rockcliffe, Ottawa, 1864  Rockcliffe takes its name from a country villa – by D.R. Macnab 1837  Rockcliffe wasn’t developed on the Macnab, but the Mackay Property  MAckay bought land in the Gloucester township, built sawmills and laid out a village for mill workers he named Edinburgh  Later purchased a generation later for the governor of the capital  Thomas Keefer, took over the Mackay Estate after his death (son in law)  Keefer was aware of the importance of railways – also aware of planning movements  An attempt was made in th e1860s to lay out a plan to connect New Edinburgh  Initial idea to lay out rectangular lots – later in the year, the design changed  The second plan shows a more curvilinear street pattern with large lots laid out along the lanes  Put out on the market in 1864 – buyers don’t come  The Horse railway was built – was it also built to move people from New Edinburgh?  Keefer also decides to turn this place for public amusement th o Late 19 century, when streetcars arrive, people start to buy these lots  This subdivision plan was registered and forms the basis for the layout of Rockcliffe up to this day  1951 –original street plan put in place by Keefer for Mackay estate o Many historical accounts see the ‘idea’ of a suburb as a retreat o 1900 – communter suburb as a rare (Harris)  Small town lots as the most profibale to develop land  Very few landscape architects or independent planners at the turn of the last century  Many smaller cities really didn’t need the new form of transit  In form, most subdivisions remained these rectangle grids  Grid patterns which were designed for ease, sometimes weren’t – i.e. you had to blow up a hill to put a road through th  Appearance of planning profession in Canada at turn of 20 century • Planning profession – early 20C influences: o City Beautiful, Daniel Burnham  World’s Colombian Exposition 1893 – important for the movement • The White City as a vision of the city that might be • Large, classically designed buildings lit with electricity • Becomes the prototype for the Beaux Art development spreading across America afterwards  As a reaction to the ugly, overcrowed conditions  Not a rejection of the city  Sees monumental civic buildings, axis  Broad avenues based off Pierre L’enfant’s plan for Washington D.C. – says that dia
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