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HIST 3209 (11)
B.S.Elliot (11)
Lecture 5

Week 5 Lecture 2.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 3209
Professor
B.S.Elliot
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 5 Lecture 2 – Built Environment Cont. Feb 12 2014 Application for job at Ottawa’s museums No class on Monday after reading week Midterm on March 5 th • Based mainly off lectures • Main readings as good supplements • His Nepean book also • Will have around 7 questions; pick two and answer or do one essay and two of the ‘state the significance’ • Six are essay questions and one is ‘state the historical significance’ o Things that are significant could be practices, or characteristic sof particular eras, particular individuls, iconic places or examples, etc o State significance within the context of the course Today’s lecture: Brick and Artistic Concrete Block; Apartment building • Shift from ethnic building to period of capitalism, larger corporations and investors pooling their capital to pool houses • Also impact of technology becoming more esteablished • Looking at the development in brick explores this shift • On Monday, we can’t assume that the buildings that survive in the past represent the houses that existed in the past • 1891 census differentiates log houses, shanty, stone or wood houses; useful in knowing what the housing was like from those records • Middle of 19 century, the province of Ontario had emerged from the subsistence stage to those buildings of more ethnic tradition • By 1851 census, 80% of housing was log, by 1861, the proportion of log houses had fallen by half; frame buildings on lumber accounted for most of the difference • Geographically, there’s a non-log corridor along the St. Lawrence Corridor and lakefront Ottawa area building materials • Evolution of housing stock (census 1851, 61, 91) o 51, had log houses and shantys o 61, log and frame o 91 combines both • Late introduction of brick production o Brick housing – 27% of brick homes in 1891 o During the 19 , the number of stone houses increased, but their rates of increase decreased o Throug Hamilton to Chatham where brick houses had their greatest proliferation o Stone as the perceived more prestigious material o i.e. Kingston has stone walls, and brick facades o depending on what is plentiful, you get differing facades o Yellow brick or white brick is twice as expensive as red brick – were more common in southwestern Ontario than here o 1861 census, brick was basically absent o Towns were increasingly passing bylaws to use non-flammable materials o In Prescott, that results in which half the twon is built in stone o Nepean, which ncludes both farms and suburbs, in 1851 (after a quarter of a century of development), 40% of the residents were living in rough log shantys, and then log hosues were housing the majority of the population; 21 stone houses, and 20 frame houses in all of Nepean o o 1861 – stone houses doubled to 45 o 1891 – the number of houses in Nepean had quadrupled since 1861 to over 1000; most of these houses wer emade of wood  Stone houses doubled, but rates still decreased (housed only 4%)  Brick houses – 231 of them which accounts for around 9% of housing stock o Brick wasn’t a common building material until the Confederation Era Building Boom in the 70s o Stone houses continued to be built into the 20 century o Late 19 century – a somewhat great rebuilding where people finally have the money to replace their original log dwellings with a brick/stone house o Bricks advertised for sale as early as 1842; bricks that would’ve been brought in from somewhere else • The producers (contractors & builders  entrepreneurs) o Donald Kennedy, the country surveyor who had a farm had to bring five barges of brick from Montreal in order to complete his construction contract o Kennedy established one of the first brick yards in Ottawa – north of the Mormon church across the experimental farm is a brick house that still exists  This is Kennedy’s house, 1879  Also where bricks were made o Two brickyards were established in Ottawa in 1859 – they were along the canal and the river  Clay to make bricks and ready water transport to sell them in town o First one operated by Nicholas Sparks on Walkley – probably got the bricks for his own house which was the first brick house – still operating in 1866 o 1870– Canal Bank and Lisgar St – Henry Goth who employed mostly German immigrants o Second brick yard as Donald Kenney’s brickyard – in 1859, Kennedy allowed Singleton to operate this brickyard  Provided him a place to live while he worked  Then he bought Singletons improvement  Later he had two Englishmen to work for him: Rogers and ? o 1862 – Kennedy then bringing a brick machine; prior ones were made by hand o Kenney is a b o 1864, they’re producing 400 000 bricks annually o 1871 tells us that Rowland is operating the yard for Kennedy, 6 men and two boys – half a million bricks a year o Kennedy sells them for 6.50 for a thousand after buying them for 3.50 a thousand from Rowland o Purchasers of these bricks were mainly Ottawa contractors o 1884, Kennedy sells that Brich yard to William Rowland; Rowland’s family continues to operate yards o These are the two pioneer brick makers  Set up 1859 o Set up by invetsors who see a way to make money; entrepreneurs pool their money together, buy land, and hire people who know how to make bricks o Two new operations set up on the East  Horus Odell? Brickmaker from Brockville 1871 – producing 1.5 million bricks a year  1878 he advertised white bricks  Sons still in business 1903  Other one was run by two Ottawa Hotel Keepers, Chapnas and John Graham • Graham had already bought land to produce vegetables for his hotels  Brickworkers went on strike in 1888 where Graham employed 77 th  Both continued into the 20 century when the growing suburbs eventally pushed them out  1870s to 1890s, there was another important brick yard in New Edinburgh • Thomas Mackay’s sons set up the New Edinburgh Brick & Terra Cotta Works • Terra Cotta is a hard baked clay that isn’t used for structural purposes, but for ornamental uses (i.e. panels on sides of buildings) • Also made white brick – they found a deposit of Shell Maryl? – this is a combination of clay and shells • Had originally been used for fertilizer but ten realized this could make a good quality white brick • Process patented and started to sell this white ornamental brick to as far away as New York City o Earliest building to use cream coloured trim brick and terracotta from New Edinburgh company is the Cartier Square Drill Hall in 1879 o Operation lasted till 1890 until the supply of Maryl was gone o O’Reilly (Rowland) & Ottawa Brick (Billings Bridge) locations 1931 o James Kennedy made a brickyard – sold it to William Mason;  Mason is providing wood components to house builders and also running a brick supply business o Another person who sets up along the Canal along the 70s is John Nicholson  He then goes into partnership by 10 Ottawa investors  Becomes the Ottawa Brick Manufacturing Company  This would then buy out many of the brick yards operating in the Ottawa area around 1890  We move away from builders and contractors to investors who really don’t know how to make bricks – just see money o 1901, Henry King sets up a competing business against Tom Mulligan  Mulligan eventually gave up the business and set up a flower shop o Brickyards, Prescott Highway, 1925 along Prince of Wales Drive o Very large brickyards on Billings Bridge  John Graham also had a brickyard at Billings in 1887  1925, those were purchased by Be
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