Class Notes (836,135)
Canada (509,645)
History (652)
HIST 3209 (11)
B.S.Elliot (11)
Lecture 5

Week 5 Lecture 2.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

HIST 3209

Week 5 Lecture 2 – Built Environment Cont. Feb 12 2014 Application for job at Ottawa’s museums No class on Monday after reading week Midterm on March 5 th • Based mainly off lectures • Main readings as good supplements • His Nepean book also • Will have around 7 questions; pick two and answer or do one essay and two of the ‘state the significance’ • Six are essay questions and one is ‘state the historical significance’ o Things that are significant could be practices, or characteristic sof particular eras, particular individuls, iconic places or examples, etc o State significance within the context of the course Today’s lecture: Brick and Artistic Concrete Block; Apartment building • Shift from ethnic building to period of capitalism, larger corporations and investors pooling their capital to pool houses • Also impact of technology becoming more esteablished • Looking at the development in brick explores this shift • On Monday, we can’t assume that the buildings that survive in the past represent the houses that existed in the past • 1891 census differentiates log houses, shanty, stone or wood houses; useful in knowing what the housing was like from those records • Middle of 19 century, the province of Ontario had emerged from the subsistence stage to those buildings of more ethnic tradition • By 1851 census, 80% of housing was log, by 1861, the proportion of log houses had fallen by half; frame buildings on lumber accounted for most of the difference • Geographically, there’s a non-log corridor along the St. Lawrence Corridor and lakefront Ottawa area building materials • Evolution of housing stock (census 1851, 61, 91) o 51, had log houses and shantys o 61, log and frame o 91 combines both • Late introduction of brick production o Brick housing – 27% of brick homes in 1891 o During the 19 , the number of stone houses increased, but their rates of increase decreased o Throug Hamilton to Chatham where brick houses had their greatest proliferation o Stone as the perceived more prestigious material o i.e. Kingston has stone walls, and brick facades o depending on what is plentiful, you get differing facades o Yellow brick or white brick is twice as expensive as red brick – were more common in southwestern Ontario than here o 1861 census, brick was basically absent o Towns were increasingly passing bylaws to use non-flammable materials o In Prescott, that results in which half the twon is built in stone o Nepean, which ncludes both farms and suburbs, in 1851 (after a quarter of a century of development), 40% of the residents were living in rough log shantys, and then log hosues were housing the majority of the population; 21 stone houses, and 20 frame houses in all of Nepean o o 1861 – stone houses doubled to 45 o 1891 – the number of houses in Nepean had quadrupled since 1861 to over 1000; most of these houses wer emade of wood  Stone houses doubled, but rates still decreased (housed only 4%)  Brick houses – 231 of them which accounts for around 9% of housing stock o Brick wasn’t a common building material until the Confederation Era Building Boom in the 70s o Stone houses continued to be built into the 20 century o Late 19 century – a somewhat great rebuilding where people finally have the money to replace their original log dwellings with a brick/stone house o Bricks advertised for sale as early as 1842; bricks that would’ve been brought in from somewhere else • The producers (contractors & builders  entrepreneurs) o Donald Kennedy, the country surveyor who had a farm had to bring five barges of brick from Montreal in order to complete his construction contract o Kennedy established one of the first brick yards in Ottawa – north of the Mormon church across the experimental farm is a brick house that still exists  This is Kennedy’s house, 1879  Also where bricks were made o Two brickyards were established in Ottawa in 1859 – they were along the canal and the river  Clay to make bricks and ready water transport to sell them in town o First one operated by Nicholas Sparks on Walkley – probably got the bricks for his own house which was the first brick house – still operating in 1866 o 1870– Canal Bank and Lisgar St – Henry Goth who employed mostly German immigrants o Second brick yard as Donald Kenney’s brickyard – in 1859, Kennedy allowed Singleton to operate this brickyard  Provided him a place to live while he worked  Then he bought Singletons improvement  Later he had two Englishmen to work for him: Rogers and ? o 1862 – Kennedy then bringing a brick machine; prior ones were made by hand o Kenney is a b o 1864, they’re producing 400 000 bricks annually o 1871 tells us that Rowland is operating the yard for Kennedy, 6 men and two boys – half a million bricks a year o Kennedy sells them for 6.50 for a thousand after buying them for 3.50 a thousand from Rowland o Purchasers of these bricks were mainly Ottawa contractors o 1884, Kennedy sells that Brich yard to William Rowland; Rowland’s family continues to operate yards o These are the two pioneer brick makers  Set up 1859 o Set up by invetsors who see a way to make money; entrepreneurs pool their money together, buy land, and hire people who know how to make bricks o Two new operations set up on the East  Horus Odell? Brickmaker from Brockville 1871 – producing 1.5 million bricks a year  1878 he advertised white bricks  Sons still in business 1903  Other one was run by two Ottawa Hotel Keepers, Chapnas and John Graham • Graham had already bought land to produce vegetables for his hotels  Brickworkers went on strike in 1888 where Graham employed 77 th  Both continued into the 20 century when the growing suburbs eventally pushed them out  1870s to 1890s, there was another important brick yard in New Edinburgh • Thomas Mackay’s sons set up the New Edinburgh Brick & Terra Cotta Works • Terra Cotta is a hard baked clay that isn’t used for structural purposes, but for ornamental uses (i.e. panels on sides of buildings) • Also made white brick – they found a deposit of Shell Maryl? – this is a combination of clay and shells • Had originally been used for fertilizer but ten realized this could make a good quality white brick • Process patented and started to sell this white ornamental brick to as far away as New York City o Earliest building to use cream coloured trim brick and terracotta from New Edinburgh company is the Cartier Square Drill Hall in 1879 o Operation lasted till 1890 until the supply of Maryl was gone o O’Reilly (Rowland) & Ottawa Brick (Billings Bridge) locations 1931 o James Kennedy made a brickyard – sold it to William Mason;  Mason is providing wood components to house builders and also running a brick supply business o Another person who sets up along the Canal along the 70s is John Nicholson  He then goes into partnership by 10 Ottawa investors  Becomes the Ottawa Brick Manufacturing Company  This would then buy out many of the brick yards operating in the Ottawa area around 1890  We move away from builders and contractors to investors who really don’t know how to make bricks – just see money o 1901, Henry King sets up a competing business against Tom Mulligan  Mulligan eventually gave up the business and set up a flower shop o Brickyards, Prescott Highway, 1925 along Prince of Wales Drive o Very large brickyards on Billings Bridge  John Graham also had a brickyard at Billings in 1887  1925, those were purchased by Be
More Less

Related notes for HIST 3209

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.