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Lecture 7

HIST 3305 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: War Bonnet, Royal Ontario Museum, Werre

Course Code
HIST 3305
Christopher Mc Naught

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Lecture 7 Tuesday, July 23, 2013
54 countries that collaborated with/were complicit with the CIA and extraordinary
rendition. Canada is listed as one of those countries.
o215-page report
Right after 9/11, Canada rushed to make its Anti-Terrorism Act to show our comraderie
to the Americans. In that period, there was a lot of scrambling. In the shock and awe of
the immediate post-9/11 tragedy, scrambling, paranoia, and apprehension, ignorance of
what was going on.
oBut at a certain point, men and women are elected to be your representatives—
need to exercise sober second thought.
oThe Attorney General of the States at the time (John Ashcroft) was piqued when
one of the lone senators (Patrick Lee) said, “Let’s ensure these powers wer’re
giving to the authorities have oversight, checks and balances, some sort of
mechanism to ensrue that democracy isn’t shipped out. We’re protecting a
democracy, not selling out our civil liberties.” Ashcroft turned over at him and said
“talk won’t prevent terrorism!”
oActually, it will. Democracy is not an ethic/moral/religion. It’s a political system.
We need to talk. Democracy, the thing we’re protecting, is all about the power of
the people. That’s expressed trhough dialogue, negotiation, discussion,
rumination on major issues.
oTO react to a localized act of violence with all your violence, no consulattion wit
hthe public, is a dangerous thing. That’s ceding to the terrorists.
oCost-effectiveness of 9/11. They only needed to learn how to steer the thing and
bring America into a state of havoc and paranoia for age afterwards.
oA sense of balance is something useful in our response to terrorism.
oFunny enough, what have you heard about terrorism since? Except for the
American political parties desperately taking anything they can as an excuse to
attack Obama.
Sense that Obama didn’t know what he was getting into when he appointed Brennan to
the CIA directorship—has brought the whole issue to the fore.
Interesting to see democracy in action, with the articles on the drones. All these
American citizens with plaquards saying “We’re not killers”, etc. But these are ordinary
citizens saying this. Couldn’t do that in Yemen, China, Russia, etc.
Terrorism isn’t new
oNorth America, after WWI, the Red Scare…lots of Canadians fighting with the
White Army against the Reds, post Russian Revolution. (Agsint the Bolsheviks)

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oSummer, 1919—metal workers trying to get better wages. The government was
afraid of them, thought they were going to be Bolsheviks
oAnother example Sacko and Venzetti—Two Italian artists falsely accused of a
bank robbery, but because they were Italians, outsiders were feared.
On trial for murder of a payroll assistant
They were asked where they were in 1917, they were in Mexico avoiding
being drafted into war, but because of that they were deemed unpatriotic
(unworthy)—even though there was not proof of the offense
oMcCarthy era—tragic. Good film: Good Night, and Good Luck.
The transcript of Murro, radio journalist during WWII, had th guts to
question senator McCarthy (nuts, chaired a HUAC committee—House of
Un-American Committee)—alleged where there were 300 Communists
hiding in America
Horrific—people killed, suicide, lost jobs, etc.
oOctober, 1970—FLQ crisis—firebombings, robbery, violence. We had that.
Tonight: out in the Canadian West
oClips to show us the country before oil sands, when Aboriginals were a proud
people, roamed as their land and their life and culture was being decimated by
disease, degradation, and massacre in the states, in Canada by the onslaught of
settlers, the railroad (10 years aft erthe March of the Mounties)
oThey were people looking of ra sense of sanctuary.
oPhil Sheradon: one of the great union cavalry generals at the lcose of the
American Civil War (1865). At the close of that war, America represented a great
threat to Canada—hundreds of thousands of armed and dangerous men, had
robust Congress that was arguing for expansionism (going into Canada). Two
years aft erthe war, got Alaska from Russia. We were starting to get closed in,
had no one guarding the boundary.
Sheradon jumped into the Indian Wars. He penned the phrase, “The only
good Indian is a dead Indian”.
oAnother great cavalry general: Colonel Custer. He was tentatively transitioning as
major general, but remained as a colonel. Was famous for flamboyant dress.
Major proponent of the move west. Led the 7th cavalry into the disaster of the
Enth Square. June, 1876. The Soux and the Rapaho and various other Indian
nations (including under Crazy Horse) massacred every cavalryman. And yet
they were led by Sitting Bull, grand chief of the Soux (who brought them
together). These were proud people, he saw his people being forced off the

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oAfter they massacred the American cavalry, Little Big Horn, their number was up.
They ewre going to be pursued until eradicated by American forces. Little Big
Horn said, “When I was young, the Soux ran the world…” Looking for sanctuary
in Canada. They found it.
oGrant McEwan: “Sitting Bull: the Years in Canada”. Great stuff. Famous picture of
Sitting Bull, taken by Northwest Mounted Police man.
oCuster, post-Civil War, in buckskins and muskets. Ready to kill Indians.
oSitting Bull came into Canada, the Cyprus hills (Saskatchewan)—rolling country.
They came tere because the buffalo hunting was good at the time. John A.
Macdonald granted them sanctuary, but no rations. They eventually went back.
The Northwest Mounted Police (particularly Sam Steel) wer the ones who
negotiated sanctuary. Sitting Bull was grateful, donated his war bonnet to the
Queen in return, it now sits in the Royal Ontario museum in Toronto.
When the Mounties were out west, Sitting Bull came out to the border, Colonel Walsh
simply rode into the middle of the camp with 4 other officers. No other white officer had
ever done that before and lived!
oThese scarlet-coated men with military mustaches and sabres, directd imeanor
ride right into the middle of the camp! There was respect, perhaps awe at their
oBut Walsh made a great name for himself.
oHe rode up to Sitting Bull and said, “if you cross, you will not be permitted to
return to this side…respect the laws of this country…Indians must learn to
respect the property of other people…Canadian law will be enforced uniformly…
the police will protect you.”
oPretty bold, but it worked. There were several Indian warriors who rode into camp
to say that he was actually an Americn spy and they would all be murdered, but
he sent two people to brignt hat chief back to him, and welcomed him with open
arms. Showed he clearly wasn’t an American spy.
oCourageous people with minimal resources!
What impelled how the west was won in our country? The American Civil War.
oMany well-armed people in the south, itching to take over
oAs they marched into Fort Gary, upt o Fort Woopup, thought we’d embrace them.
oThen Alaska
oThings were closing in
oMacDonald thought that the flag needed to be flown out west.
oThere were men who believed they could march in and take over
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