Lecture 7 Tuesday, July 23, 2013
• 54 countries that collaborated with/were complicit with the CIA and extraordinary
rendition. Canada is listed as one of those countries.
o 215-page report
• Right after 9/11, Canada rushed to make its Anti-Terrorism Act to show our comraderie
to the Americans. In that period, there was a lot of scrambling. In the shock and awe of
the immediate post-9/11 tragedy, scrambling, paranoia, and apprehension, ignorance of
what was going on.
o But at a certain point, men and women are elected to be your representatives—
need to exercise sober second thought.
o The Attorney General of the States at the time (John Ashcroft) was piqued when
one of the lone senators (Patrick Lee) said, “Let’s ensure these powers wer’re
giving to the authorities have oversight, checks and balances, some sort of
mechanism to ensrue that democracy isn’t shipped out. We’re protecting a
democracy, not selling out our civil liberties.” Ashcroft turned over at him and said
“talk won’t prevent terrorism!”
o Actually, it will. Democracy is not an ethic/moral/religion. It’s a political system.
We need to talk. Democracy, the thing we’re protecting, is all about the power of
the people. That’s expressed trhough dialogue, negotiation, discussion,
rumination on major issues.
o TO react to a localized act of violence with all your violence, no consulattion wit
hthe public, is a dangerous thing. That’s ceding to the terrorists.
o Cost-effectiveness of 9/11. They only needed to learn how to steer the thing and
bring America into a state of havoc and paranoia for age afterwards.
o A sense of balance is something useful in our response to terrorism.
o Funny enough, what have you heard about terrorism since? Except for the
American political parties desperately taking anything they can as an excuse to
• Sense that Obama didn’t know what he was getting into when he appointed Brennan to
the CIA directorship—has brought the whole issue to the fore.
• Interesting to see democracy in action, with the articles on the drones. All these
American citizens with plaquards saying “We’re not killers”, etc. But these are ordinary
citizens saying this. Couldn’t do that in Yemen, China, Russia, etc.
• Terrorism isn’t new
o North America, after WWI, the Red Scare…lots of Canadians fighting with the
White Army against the Reds, post Russian Revolution. (Agsint the Bolsheviks) o Summer, 1919—metal workers trying to get better wages. The government was
afraid of them, thought they were going to be Bolsheviks
o Another example Sacko and Venzetti—Two Italian artists falsely accused of a
bank robbery, but because they were Italians, outsiders were feared.
On trial for murder of a payroll assistant
They were asked where they were in 1917, they were in Mexico avoiding
being drafted into war, but because of that they were deemed unpatriotic
(unworthy)—even though there was not proof of the offense
o McCarthy era—tragic. Good film: Good Night, and Good Luck.
The transcript of Murro, radio journalist during WWII, had th guts to
question senator McCarthy (nuts, chaired a HUAC committee—House of
Un-American Committee)—alleged where there were 300 Communists
hiding in America
Horrific—people killed, suicide, lost jobs, etc.
o October, 1970—FLQ crisis—firebombings, robbery, violence. We had that.
• Tonight: out in the Canadian West
o Clips to show us the country before oil sands, when Aboriginals were a proud
people, roamed as their land and their life and culture was being decimated by
disease, degradation, and massacre in the states, in Canada by the onslaught of
settlers, the railroad (10 years aft erthe March of the Mounties)
o They were people looking of ra sense of sanctuary.
o Phil Sheradon: one of the great union cavalry generals at the lcose of the
American Civil War (1865). At the close of that war, America represented a great
threat to Canada—hundreds of thousands of armed and dangerous men, had
robust Congress that was arguing for expansionism (going into Canada). Two
years aft erthe war, got Alaska from Russia. We were starting to get closed in,
had no one guarding the boundary.
Sheradon jumped into the Indian Wars. He penned the phrase, “The only
good Indian is a dead Indian”.
o Another great cavalry general: Colonel Custer. He was tentatively transitioning as
major general, but remained as a colonel. Was famous for flamboyant dress.
Major proponent of the move west. Led the 7 cavalry into the disaster of the
Enth Square. June, 1876. The Soux and the Rapaho and various other Indian
nations (including under Crazy Horse) massacred every cavalryman. And yet
they were led by Sitting Bull, grand chief of the Soux (who brought them
together). These were proud people, he saw his people being forced off the
continent. o After they massacred the American cavalry, Little Big Horn, their number was up.
They ewre going to be pursued until eradicated by American forces. Little Big
Horn said, “When I was young, the Soux ran the world…” Looking for sanctuary
in Canada. They found it.
o Grant McEwan: “Sitting Bull: the Years in Canada”. Great stuff. Famous picture of
Sitting Bull, taken by Northwest Mounted Police man.
o Custer, post-Civil War, in buckskins and muskets. Ready to kill Indians.
o Sitting Bull came into Canada, the Cyprus hills (Saskatchewan)—rolling country.
They came tere because the buffalo hunting was good at the time. John A.
Macdonald granted them sanctuary, but no rations. They eventually went back.
The Northwest Mounted Police (particularly Sam Steel) wer the ones who
negotiated sanctuary. Sitting Bull was grateful, donated his war bonnet to the
Queen in return, it now sits in the Royal Ontario museum in Toronto.
• When the Mounties were out west, Sitting Bull came out to the border, Colonel Walsh
simply rode into the middle of the camp with 4 other officers. No other white officer had
ever done that before and lived!
o These scarlet-coated men with military mustaches and sabres, directd imeanor
ride right into the middle of the camp! There was respect, perhaps awe at their
o But Walsh made a great name for himself.
o He rode up to Sitting Bull and said, “if you cross, you will not be permitted to
return to this side…respect the laws of this country…Indians must learn to
respect the property of other people…Canadian law will be enforced uniformly…
the police will protect you.”
o Pretty bold, but it worked. There were several Indian warriors who rode into camp
to say that he was actually an Americn spy and they would all be murdered, but
he sent two people to brignt hat chief back to him, and welcomed him with open
arms. Showed he clearly wasn’t an American spy.
o Courageous people with minimal resources!
• What impelled how the west was won in our country? The American Civil War.
o Many well-armed people in the south, itching to take over
o As they marched into Fort Gary, upt o Fort Woopup, thought we’d embrace them.
o Then Alaska
o Things were closing in
o MacDonald thought that the flag needed to be flown out west.
o There were men who believed they could march in and take over o Whiskey traders making a fortune off the destruction of the health and culture of
o Great incident in Cyprus hills (Cyprus hills massacre)—on the banks of Battle
Creek, June, 1873. Gorup of drunken American whiskey traders, massacred 20
starving Nacote Indian traders after a dispute over a single missing horse. This
shocked civilized Canada, news reached them. MacDonald responded.
May, 1873: Bill introduced, to form Mounties
• Later that month: royal assent
June, 1873: Cypus hills massacre
• People asked what he’s done about this
• The natives were restless, saying if we’re part of the Dominoin,
who’s protecting us?
• Lord Dufferin said to MacDonald, “We’ve decided to send the
March, 1874: 150 men assembled under Colonel French, officers
appointed, total of 300 men by June of 1874. July: the start of the Great
March, going west.
• Wen to Fort Woopup, got rid of the whiskey traders, fly the flag,
pacify that area (between Aborginals and settlers, etc.)
• What kind of people would enlist int eh Mounties?
o Frederick Augustus Bagley—15 years old at the time. Described himself as
adventurer. Followed the works of James Finamore Cooper, imagined that it
would be great adventure.
o They were great horsemen, became crackshots, very militarily disciplined
o Primary task: traditional of Sir Robert peel—show the community that there was
some peace and order to be had.
• Few resoures
o Entire column of a regiment was bringing the tribe of Soux up to Canadian borde
to be transferred to sanctuary of Canada. They were met by 3 Mounties.
o A corporal said there’s a fourth guy, but he’s up cooking trout fro breakfast.
o 4 men escorting 1000 Indians. And they had the respect to do that.
o Typical of Canadians: we’ve been deferential to authority over the years. We
don’t have the same sense of outrage as the Americans… • Mounties aided by skillful scouts. One of the most famous: Bear Child (named Jerry
Potts), one of the most dangerous men in the Old West. Crackshot, skilled scout, could
speak 4/5 native tongues, lived a life that Hollywood could never imagine.
o Jerry Potts also known as Bear Child
o Book of that name (Bear Child: the life and times of Jerry Potts)
o It says: he had survived lots of wars, came out of skirmish with Indian tribe I the
States with an arrow in his body, bullets everywhere. Notorious among the
Indians. Master tracker, deadly shot.
o He and a cousin were ambushed by three Crow. The cousin fel dead. Potts
tossed his rifle down in defeat. The Crow mentioned that they were happy with a
single scalp—Potts could go. He gratefully turned his horse away, hearling them
talk about which part of him they would cut off. He dove forward in his saddle,
avoided a bullet. He rolled off his horse, killed his cousin’s killers, nailed them all.
o He was great at affectuating respect, diplomatic relations between Crow Foot
and the government. 1868 (just before the Mounties), was leading an expedition
when 200 Soux attacked. He’s with 3 other people in a hunting expedition! Potts
charged back through the Soux and surprised them, he and his companions
hightailed to a log cabin, barricaded there. Potts killed five Soux. That night, he
belly-crawled for 5 miles to the Soux camp, he quickly cut out the fastest horses,
took them back, they escaped.
• But there’s a sad side to the Old West, too.
• The Great Soux Lacota: “a people without history is like a wind in the buffalo grass.”
• Crow Foot (Great Chief of the Blackfoot)—best relationship with Canadian government
o Near death: what is life? It is a flash of fire in the night, it is a shadow as it crosse
sin the grass, to the sunset.
o He was perceptive, a diplomat
o He was accused ot being drawn into the Rail Rebellion—he kept the Blackfoot
out of that—smart move.
• Movie and a book made, referring to a massacre that took place at Wounded Knee.
o Film Hidalgo also opens with the massacre there
• Pictures of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
• Film “Dances with Wolves” is good…
• Another book: “Son of the Morning Star: Custer and the Little Bighorn”—maybe made
into a TV show?
• Eventually, the buffalo herds declined, settlers came in, the whiskey traders cleared out.
When the Mounties arrived in Fort Woopup, the whiskey traders were gone. They wer good at maintaining peace. It’s open to say that they also enforced racist or
discriminatory policies, but I think if yo put it in context, you’ll see that an immensely wild
atmosphere, they did a good job at maintaining law and order, peace, etc.
• Many of the Soux went back south of the border, unfortunately fell prey to the
vicissitudes of being an Indianin the States.
• Sitting Bull wound up touring with Buffalo Bill in the famous Wild West Show that toured
the US in the late 1800s. Got paid 50 cents/week. He sang about his feeling of peace
towards his American brothers, but the MC was saying he was just outhing the savage
threats of the tribe…he died in captivity.
• Francis Dickens (son of Charles Dickens)—inspector with the Mounties who went West.
• Jerry Potts—in 1870s, had returned from a fray with 19 scalps, deep head wound, shot
pellet lodged in left ear, arrow lodged in body. But he had a victory. Unlikely-looking hero.
• Crow Foot—proud and beautiful Indian face.
• Typical frontier dress for travelling (as a Mountie). But when they had to fly the flag,
sharp mustaches, swagger sticks, boots with spurs, quite sharp-looking!
• Most famous Mountie of all time—Colonel Sam Steel.
o One of the first Mounties
o Fought in the Louis Riel rebellion, w