Europe gave the preconditions for terrorism to grow, to a point where it was too large. The preconditions were exported elsewhere, and became international. Psychological warfare is the rst form of terrorism (hill people ran down and made a lot of noise to scare them away). At one point a legitimate ruler who is delegitimized. Secret societies then emerged, such as zealots and assassins. The next precondition is gun powder in ancient times people used to carry out terror acts with a knife or a blade (one vs. one terror). Gunpowder made it possible for an individual to attack multiple individuals at once. The emergence of mass media (through the advent of the printing press) is a precondition for terrorism as well. Political awareness has an unintended consequence of enabling violent actions from certain individuals. Then, constitutionalism limited how governments could respond to attacks.