Into a before and after of european borders: in two centuries, nationalism has been the de ning feature of political organization. A nation is de ned by religion, ethnicity, history, language, etc a nation can be de ned in many ways. A nation has the right to inhabit a state. But the process is not smooth, it is accompanied by lots of dispute, warfare, terrorism the idea of a nation-state spread around the world. The idea of nationalism is problematic, but powerful. So powerful people are willing to commit violence to achieve it. The french revolution demonstrated the power of mass mobilization and national armies. Aristocracy were the leaders of society, but the. This demonstrated that if you arm the people you have a large military capability. The nation armed is a force to be reckoned with. The french learned that they should mass-conscript to achieve power. Nationalism also brings up other nationalisms asymmetric warfare: spanish resistance to.