Terrorists learned about psychological warfare from the state: they learned the value of assassinations. Initially tyrannicide was committed on an ad hoc basis but there was always a danger that this would get out of hand. Eventually it was justi ed by recourse to a higher authority than that of the monarch who could be a deemed to be a tyrant. The higher authority eventually crystallized into an idea of the people or the nation, as expressed in a supreme law (a constitution). That did not prevent individuals from taking up arms in the interests of a higher cause if they felt that the laws did not advance that cause suf ciently. In the book of judges of the old testament, ehud is a judge who assassinates the moabite king. Asks for a private audience, kills eglon, escapes and leads a rising that overthrows the. A symbol: as justi cation for assassination because it is mentioned in a holy book.