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Lecture 1

HUMR 2202 Lecture 1: HUMR 2202 Lecture 1

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Human Rights
HUMR 2202
Dan Irving

Sept. 16 TA: [email protected] Fail course if miss more than 3 tutorials Midterm based on readings (fill in the blank, concept matching, multiple choice)*** (Do readings cause hard and ppthfail) Tutorials week of Sept. 19 Classical Liberalism  Neoliberal philosophy, comes out of classical  Hayek and Friedman  Power relations  Assignments: how does this relate to human rights and power relations Milton Friedman  US economist  Vehement defender of free market  Capitalism and Freedom Defining Liberalism through Friedman  Key concept of neoliberalism: freedom* o Freedom is rooted in individualism*: individual is ultimate entity in society o “free man is responsible for his own destiny”: freedom linked to individualism, so individual is responsibility to make life what can; moral and ethical code of personal responsibility o Individuals as rational econ actors o Society free when adults (responsible, indiv) can engage in enterprise (business) o Masculinist approach, talking about men (see through gendered pronouns) o Freedom is can participate in capitalist free market o Not all adults: “mad men” (ppl w mental illness) are exception to rule o Freedom realized through “private enterprise exchange economy” o Freedom tied to “competitive capitalism*” (how freedom can ONLY be realized) o Individuals are market actors o Participation w/in competitive capitalism is voluntary (to Friedman) o Market fosters voluntary and informed economic relations; means as (example) consumer, right to shop where ever you want (freedom to leave, consume what you want)  Says same is true of merchants (can refuse a price)  Same for employees (must be voluntary), if don’t like wages, etc. can leave and work elsewhere (non coercion) o (Talking about economics, Hayek and Friedman separate politics and economics)  In conversation with Keynesian economics and welfare state policy (particularity Hayek) Sept. 16 o Freedom realized through market exchange!! o Against monopoly capitalism bc not market economy (not voluntary for consumers, employees if no competition)—not freedom o Pg. 21 defends market economy, says can’t discriminate based on economics  Argues in favour of competitive market economy  “No one…market relations” o Role of government: limited government  Pg. 2: what can I and compatriots do through government  Econ can’t guarantee freedom, need role of government  Economic sphere needs to operate autonomously from political (government out of economy)  Competing against Keynesian welfare state  (1945- late 1970’s Keynesian Welfare State governed Western world; after neoliberalism moved from philosophy to dominant policy)  after WW2, implemented w/in West  based on Keynes  argued free market had to be tamed by state (role of state in economic relations)  State intervenes in econ downturns, inject money (state can leave econ during booms)—simulates full employment  Social policy role (state funded education, healthcare, unemployment insurance, social assistance, etc.)  Hayek (and also Friedman): hate of this theory—his writing is directly against this—role of state not in economy  Minimalist role in economy, government out of economy  Hayek doesn’t think states he’s talking about are socialist, but taking that path  When writing, established material alternative to capitalism (Soviet Union, China, Cuba)—not freedom or democracy to him  Government has no write to tax citizens and put into social program, infringing on freedom to do what they want w money  No tariffs, public housing, parks  How does state know where I want to put my money?  Individuals should put money where want  Government SHOULD:  preserve law and order (obligation to keep ppl safe from domestic and foreign “enemies”)  Provides grounds for free market relations (enable private contracts btw individuals)  Create conditions to foster competition (ex. free trade)  Funct
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