week 2 terms and examples
when camouflage and cryptic behaviour fails, some animals have a second defence or
startle patterns: bright colours and patterns that when exposed startle the predator giving
time for the animal to escape.
examples: bright yellow on inside of legs of gray tree frog
bright hind wings of band-winged grasshoppers
bright hind wings of underwing moths
eye-spots on sphinx moth hind wings
huge eye-spots on io moth and polyphemus moth hind wings
distraction patterns: patterns that serve to distract or deflect a predator’s attention to a
non-vital body part. these are often but not
always startle patterns also.
deflection patterns: another name for distraction patterns that also serve this function.
some small butterflies have eye-spots and fake antennae on hind wings that serve as
distraction or deflection patterns
examples: tailed blue butterflies, also swallowtail butterflies; five-lined skink blue tail
serves to distract and deflect attack
permanent eyespots (never hidden) can be used to fool a predator into thinking the
animal is bigger than it really is.
example: eyed elater (beetle), tiger swallowtail caterpillar
disguise through behaviour: some animals add bits of environment to body to disguise:
masquerade artists: examples: leaf rollers, caddisfly larvae, sumac gall aphids
physical defence can involve hard physical structures that are part of the
hard exoskeleton: examples: many beetles, millipedes
shells formed from internal skeleton: examples: turtles: blanding’s turtle can partially
close its shell,
hard shells formed from calcium: examples: snails, clams
animal physical defences include:
a) silk webs for protection: eastern tent caterpillar, fall webworm
b) long body hairs: many caterpillars: gypsy moth, woolly bear c) body hair (guard hairs) modified into quills: porcupine
animal chemical defences
poison spines: hairs that are branched and tipped with toxins: