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Lecture 2

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Department
Human Rights
Course
HUMR 2202
Professor
Marc Tedder
Semester
Fall

Description
week 2 terms and examples when camouflage and cryptic behaviour fails, some animals have a second defence or “plan b”: startle patterns: bright colours and patterns that when exposed startle the predator giving time for the animal to escape. examples: bright yellow on inside of legs of gray tree frog bright hind wings of band-winged grasshoppers bright hind wings of underwing moths eye-spots on sphinx moth hind wings huge eye-spots on io moth and polyphemus moth hind wings distraction patterns: patterns that serve to distract or deflect a predator’s attention to a non-vital body part. these are often but not always startle patterns also. deflection patterns: another name for distraction patterns that also serve this function. some small butterflies have eye-spots and fake antennae on hind wings that serve as distraction or deflection patterns examples: tailed blue butterflies, also swallowtail butterflies; five-lined skink blue tail serves to distract and deflect attack permanent eyespots (never hidden) can be used to fool a predator into thinking the animal is bigger than it really is. example: eyed elater (beetle), tiger swallowtail caterpillar disguise through behaviour: some animals add bits of environment to body to disguise: masquerade artists: examples: leaf rollers, caddisfly larvae, sumac gall aphids physical defence can involve hard physical structures that are part of the animal’s body: hard exoskeleton: examples: many beetles, millipedes shells formed from internal skeleton: examples: turtles: blanding’s turtle can partially close its shell, hard shells formed from calcium: examples: snails, clams animal physical defences include: a) silk webs for protection: eastern tent caterpillar, fall webworm b) long body hairs: many caterpillars: gypsy moth, woolly bear c) body hair (guard hairs) modified into quills: porcupine animal chemical defences poison spines: hairs that are branched and tipped with toxins: i.e
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