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week 1.doc

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Human Rights
Course Code
HUMR 2202
Marc Tedder

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Natural History – Some Notes for Week 1 Natural History: An observational science that involves looking at all living things. Natural history knowledge is essential for assessments of ecosystems or habitats. It is also one of the most enjoyable pursuits in the world. Naturalist: One who studies Natural History. Clothes must be worn and are not optional. Animals: A Kingdom that includes Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish, Mammals, Insects, Spiders, Clams, and lots of other organisms. Natural Selection: the driving force behind evolution. It consists of all the selective pressures placed on plants and animals by the environment (such as wind or cold or drought) or by animals (such as predators or even members of the same species). Those poorly adapted do not survive to pass on their genes and those that are better adapted tend to survive and pass on their genes allowing the adaptation to persist into the future and possibly become more refined. Natural Selection was first recognized by Charles Darwin. Adaptation: any feature that offers a plant or animal an advantage in solving any life problem that give it a chance of surviving and reproducing. An adaptation is not an act of intelligence or a planned solution but a physical, physiological, or behavioural trait that has evolved because of the selective pressures of natural selection. No adaptation is perfect and often an adaptation has drawbacks associated with it that require another adaptation to resolve. This makes Natural History so very, very interesting because never is there only one solution to any problem. Instead, many solutions have arisen to solve every challenge. DEFENCES OF ANIMALS: A) PHYSICAL CAMOUFLAGE: colours and patterns that allow animals to blend into the background. Crypsis: the art of concealment or remaining hidden: camouflage combined with motionless behaviour Types of Camouflage 1. Background Matching: Having the same general patterns and colours as the immediate environment. Examples: For sun-dappled forest habitats, blotches and earth- toned colours help animals hide. Examples: ground nesting birds such as female grouse (also female ducks), White-tailed D
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