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Myth and Symbol HUMS 1000.docx

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Carleton University
HUMS 1000
Noel Salmond

st Sept 9 2013 Myth and symbol 1 lecture - myth is so deeply profound and true that ordinary lanuage doesnt convey it --> requires poetic language (like a death in a family - give flowers-->something useless conveys a comforting message. all that there is to do. paradox.)-->most useless things (flowers/poem) are most dire and useful in important and serious situations think shakespeare. his fluffy language does indeed say something so strong that only his gay ass words can achieve ART OVER SCIENCE. FACT OVER IMAGINATION. WONDER. ALL THOSE BEAUTIFUL THINGS ONLY PROSE CAN MAKE YOU FEEL SOMETHING. - padon^^^: category of myth is useful in a comparison study of religion--> paradigmatic naratives from long ago are now recieved by a culture that is provided prototypes and models for bhvrs today. ie society -->stories of creation: gives present meaning myths are true bc they provide grounding prototypes for a large population of people (depending on their specific beliefs) - world is disenchanted nowadays. no more magic in anything, all is pragmatic, all is shallow and material - myth and religion: mythic language is participatory to an insider ---- all is true as opposed to an outsider (perspective) to an insider: not just a told story, ritually preformed - myth and time: myth orders time in terms of what is timeless --- time of myth is beyond time. (insiders) time is NOW organized in reference to a happening way back when that gives that happening meaning and therefore mythic standing. ythic cultures want to have their calendars organized according to their timeless events in time (coming and going of gods, arrival of holy events and offerings, etc) myth orders time and SPACE. space is ordered as a focal point of the sacred. (the centre of jerusalem---abrahams son---islam, christianity and jewdaism.) myth creates focal points :) river ganges, mecca, etc etcc - all of this is stripped away with secularism - mythic word: fluid language of images (like dreams--->powerful, illogical, meaningful) myths are the collective dream of an entire culture. memorized, recited, enacted, chanted----ways to express myth in all cultures. insiders have different interactive ways to engage in mythic history that doesnt include reading it in solitude - myth and worlds: myths reflect material geographical circumstances of the culture cosmoginies (creation stories) ultimate foundation of myth myth provide both calendar (mythic events) and map (sacred places) endow now and ordinary with the eternal history and dynamic of myth (secular people getting married do traditionally, priets and bible reading etc) myth doesnt only provide past but also predicts the future. or rather tells it as it will be. provide a map of bhvr to the future. terms: time,--> myth orgainizes (cyclical)word,(authority) space (axis mundi---centre of the world--sacred space as opposed to ordinary space.) lincoln: brings myth into the present tense myth does not remain in the bowels of time, but is here now - legitimate time over iliegitiamte time - stories and narratives - parallel how myths move people and societies (identity) boundaries that define a group - ability of mythic stories to chang e in terms of relative authority to creath (construc and deconstruct ) society. power and legitimacy contest. who gets to weild the power? to vote? monarchys vs the bourgousie. -fundamental role of myth is to solidify identity separation of groups--> we are muslims bc we believe this. - society constructed from sentiments (affinity and estrangement) - make us feel connected and happy OR separate and hostile me thinks: without myth time wouldnt exist. - difference btwn myth and stories--> fables, legends, history and myth. truth claims over none, lacking or providing credibility, holds authority over none. myth has truth claims, credibility, AND HAS AUTHORITY. stories can go from legend to myth to fable to history etc fluctuates. model of or for society 911-event in history promoted to status of myth bc it has authority. new laws, invasion of iraq, US identity, active in providing identity and practises of the united states following the event and due to the event. told and retold. serves to legitimize invasion of iraq and other shit theyve done since then. holocuast being treated as myth to legitimize zionism and invasion of palestine when it should simply be used as history. - unite or divides groups -past shapes present, present shapes past--->over time status of stories will rise or fall depending on the needs of society (minataur) -myth mobilize people - contest authority or credibility of a myth -wat Page 74: observation: not every account of origins is mythic & science. (sentence) – cultures find these myths a source of healing and salvation (restoraration) that’s padon – Lincoln differs because of authority in political situations etc. September 12, 2013 - What going on - Relationship btwn science and religion???? What - Mircea eliade - Thomas berry – studied earth and earth systems, scientific September 17, 2013 - Human experiences the same (birth, childhood, family life etc) - Collective unconscious (human in south pole vs Africa) biology the same, below the concoius mind there was an unconscious generated by personal experiences. Collective- archetypes(worldly symbols) that can be tracked across different cultures Kitchi Manitou – spiritual power, lightning birds, the great spirit, chi (big) greatest, biggest spirit; ie the creator - Kitchi man cleansed the earth with water (ghanges, zam zam, holy water etc) death/rebirth - Nanaboozhoo – hero* of ojibwe people, can change shape, subject human emotions (fear/lust) survived the flood, lets animals rest on floating log, says he’ll grab the earth Anishanaabe Myths – The creation story, the turtle  Ojibwe Teachings - The animals needed a new, clean place to live - Several animals tried and failed to reach the bottom of the lake where they could get earth and create a new land - The muskrat finally tried and did obtain the earth, but he died, sacrificing himself so everyone else could start anew - The turtle put the earth in his back and wind blew from all four directions and the earth grew into a large island in the middle of the lake now known as north America Four Directions Teachings: - North, south, east, west, centre - Teach us of balance in the world - 7 sacred directions - The Seven Stages of Life are: The Good Life, The Fast Life, The Wandering Life, the stages of Truth, Planning, and Doing, and The Elder Life - Centre: maintaining the fire within, (letting go of distractions, making peace with oneself, etc) rose a life cycle: thorns as life, without hardness we would not learn, etc whatever - The east – where we come from/begin our journey as human beings and take the form of human (physical) tobacco as a gift from the creator used to honor life , spring - South – summer, life is awake and thriving, youth questioning their lives, meaning, who they are , finding balance, grandmother cedar helps - West (epangishmok) – adult, ripening, harvest, physical journey over, life back into spirit world, death (sun sets in the west inly to rise again, we die many times, we constantly change) change and healing comes from the heart not from the head, death can mean freedom - North (kiiwedinong) – rest & contemplation period after death, place of wisdom, tell stories of meaning st - Seven stages of life: good life – 1 7 years, easy, childhood - fast life: preparation for vision quest, puberty, journey into adulthood - wandering life: wonder, wandering through life to find meaning, answers to lifes questions, finding teaches and mentors etc - Truth: teachers and mentors guided us to truth being, this is who I am, this is what I’ve learned, these are my gifts - Planning: what to do with the info I have? What to do now how to accomplish goals? - Doing: living, putting to practice all that was learned on the journey - Elder: induction into elders circle, now that they are elders they are to teach the young’uns, life as a circle The prophecy of the 7 fires - Don’t even care - All but the 7 were fulfilled with the coming of the lightskinnef evil americans and Canadians, and the 7 is being fulfilled now. Ya September 19, 2013 - Woman who was the first breastfeeder: winona, gave birth to the first people on earth, anishinaabe are her descendents, we exist bc she united with the western direction, nourished us by nurturing us - When women breastfeed they align themselves with this story as they engage in creating human life - cultures want the here and now to be linked to some ancient mythic prototype ( a sort of model) ahem paden - Lighting the eighth fire (after the seventh) the protection of indigenous scholars (cbc tv series) - Why do we always talk about random shit ie the land claim - The mix and combonation of anishinaabic and native peoples adopting Christian values and beliefs - Ojibwe: people originiated on west coast, and migrated and stopped in several places, finally stopped where food “grew on the water” ie rice - Biblical connections - Notion of 8 fire: if we get it together with the 7 fire, we can light the eighth, which is hope for the future September 24, 2013 enuma elish - Myth of Creation: brief history - Syncretism – blending or mixing of cultures (gods being alike to eachother, therefore their the same) - Now it could be defined as assimilation - Mesopotamia includes several cultures, kingdoms, empires, modern day Iraq and iran - Civilization – development - Spoke a kind of language like Turkish and finnish (non semitive)  agglutinative - Non semitic – can’t easily pick it up, doesn’t have common ground as other languages - Influenced greeks, Babylonians, etc acadians - Acaad great Acadian king - Site of his reign not found - Collected and redacted all the myths of senoa and semeria and translated them into Acadian (reason we have these accounts) Sargon 2300 BCE - His daughter was a priestess, poet and a scholar Edheduana - Empire got to big, fell apart - Hammurabi – king of Babylon, babyl as a dominant city around 1800 BCE o Previously Babylon was small and insignificant o Ham made it bigga o Wrote a famous law code (1800) comparable to law code in the bible o He wrote this before Abraham even existed – already following “biblical” practises - With each new dynasty that rises to power, another one will come to dominate - Patron god - When one god conquers another, myths are written about why that god is that bestes - Each new ruler improves on what the other one did - Psychologically: story of maturity, coming to being with oneself, growing into self - Whatwhatwhatwhwat - Body of the mother is a babies entire universe – provides nourishments, but u stuck - You have no sepearte self when you’re part of the mother - But you need to sepearte your self - Universe constructed out of the body of the mother after the child has become independent - Tiamont - Kills motha and creates a whole new world, the cosmos - Material of the cosmos - Sliced her in half  constructs the world and universe and cosmos out of tiamonts body - I don’t even care - Founds Babylon as religious centre (who??) - Politically, myth functions propoganda - Marduke - Idkkkkkk man - Marduke has to defeat a goddess to make the word but then when u get to the bible there is no goddess god just says be and then the world is - Padon: enuma elish about ordering the cosmos, setting up time, cycles of day night seasons, creates the world in which to live, creates the place that anchors the axis mundi, the centre etc - Padon – re legitimize the king and the god who grants him authority WHAT THE FUSJ - Enuma creates man and establishes mans purpose (slave, to serve) - Re enacted every new year (told as a story) - Model of and for (loncoln) - Identifies king and god with the fertility of the land - K bye September 26 2013 Epic of Gilgamesh LOL JK it isnt - Enki personifies water - Gods represent powers of fertility and yield - Myths focus on apgricultural cycles nd - 2 focus: gods become more personal o Relate to people on a personal level (rather than forces of nature) o Rise of the human/warrior hero - First period o Predates writing o Anana and demusi o The Uruk vase  bride coming to meet groom at the gate (dimousi) giftsfoodsignifying gifts from fertility gods o Depicts the mmyth of anana and dimousi (grain & beersumarians drank beer)  Also associated with dates and a young bull (fertility)  Every day he dies with the dead crops then the god who reps crops also dies  Goddess as a storehouse, provides a place to store gift  Signifies abundance of crops for community (their relationship) dimousi and anana  D tells A about the fibs of women  D as the food and abundance that goes inside the storehouse, A  Marital sex as “plowing the field”  Myth of D concludes with his death and (he’s the grain who grows and dies)  A’s ready and waiting for another plower  Importance on agriculture and human sexuality pertaining to fertility  Anana (Ishtar) and D’s marriage shows a model of marriage btwn king & goddess  sacred marriage (hieros gamos) o New years thing was consummation btwn a king and goddess (representations of) o Continuity of the cosmic and – forces of nature   “sacred booty call” o Conjoining of sexual functioning of the man and the fertility of the land  If he cant get it up his ability and virility is diminished - Sacred prostitution: A was associated and is referred to as a prostitute o Sensual love o ancient mesopotamia o Sacred sex depicted in ancient temples (they was on an alter) o Gilgamesh: o Shamkhat – released enkidu from his childhood state for SIX DAYS by arousing him  He has become profound, like a god  sex civilizes him, makes him un beast – like  Brings him closer to the divine  Takes him back to normalcy - Second period of meso. Reli: o Prayers to god, personal relationship o Not just on behalf of a community o Personal gods (luck) o Personal relationships with deities o People had personal sins o Rise of hero, fall of goddess o Warrior ideal (marduk conquers mother goddess) o Main theme in the epic of gilgamesh: quest for mortality o Gilga learns that to have lived well and loved is most important o  character development, he’s no longer a dick o Enkidu’s death forces gilga to face his mortality o Gilga is so magnificent, yet his own bro dies and he realises that he may as well o Sidouri tells him to get over himself, teaches him whats important o When he tries to achieve immortality for staying up for 7 days, he instead falls asleep right away failure o Gets the plant instead, but doesn’t take it right away but the snake takes it, then sheds its skin (renewal etc) o Almost achieves his quest before it slips away o Realises that that’s that o went from a tyrant king to a badass king thanks to enki o Gilga is a very human hero (concerns and fears of all humans) o Reflects mythic shift from fertility cult to heroic oriented mythology o Ishtaar (anana) proposes sacred marriage to gilga she can make him a great king, he will be revered, etc  Gilga says he doesn’t need her to rep him, he can do it by hiself  Ishtaar sicks bull of heaven on him, and he kills it  He relies on his own strength to legitimize him as king  ((((prostitutes symbolize wisdom))))) Theogony - Cosmogony  creation story o The birth of the gods o They were cosmos; all was chaos o “sun mated with the sky”?? o Male force and female birth o Idk man o Did the birth of the gods contain whatever chaos was reigning before them?? o If the gods are so mighty in strength, immortality and greatness, why do they fall prey to the mere struggles of being human? (male and female relations, family love, etc  trivial human pursuits?) o Reminds me of epic of creation  just as earth is created from Tiamot, Gaia gives birth to the trees, mountain, sky, etc  Ie motherly figure??? o “unions, separations, births taking place” theogony – ie division in the world o Why are these gods revered as gods but do not act or seem as such?? Lolol these are some pussy ass gids o So basically then everything came to be October 1, 2013 - 1050 – mysenean population disappears - Loss of technology  more primitive geometry, potter, artwork, etc - Enter into a period of illiteracy - Drought? Eruption? War? th - 8 century, renaissance, increased prosperity, period of calm, popn growth o Circular process o Popn growth colonization o More economic development  trades, cultural, leads to yet more growth etc o Literacy o Only kings have weaponry, mostly fight other kings  Rise of democracy  middle class can now afford weaponry  Not hero against hero, but yeah o Leads to class disparity : oligarchy  usurping of farmers (wealthy farmer buys off poor farmer) debt slavery  Draconian law o Religion characterized by local gods and cults  Linked to ancestry and family, plot of land etc, spirits of the family  Heir (plato) to take over family cult sacred tree, caves, etc  Urbanization: caused by people moving to cities, being displaced,  certain gods become dominant  Certain families gain charge or priesthood • There place (farm, spring, tree cave, etc) becomes community site, and all other families meet there - Theogony: early attempt to organize and order and make sense of this geneology o Greek as the dominant language, meant to be civilised others were considered barbaric, illiterate etc o Early greek historian: all the religion that we know now is pretty recent o Basis of greek education  Refer to Hesiod and homer as authors, yet it was orally passed down through generations and it’s evolved (different translation)  Change the story based on where they were, adding new elements, sharing techniques o It is possible that the version we have now is the winner, it’s authoritative etc o Blablabla o Goal of the hero to achieve kleos  immortality in story and legend etc etc o Hesiod: common men, merging polis, values, not democracy, average th lives of people, 8 centrury  Concerned with social inequity and class stuff, justice  Decay presented as favorite daughter of zeus  Tells Z when her laws are perverted  Intro praises the gods and poetry  Reveals power of the poet  Poet as a shaman figure  Hesiod—he gives the voice  His persona is part of the poem  Laurel is poisoness, burn it to create a trance state  Alter da conscious  Muses grant him power to see the past and future  Poet is self conscious of its own pwer, poet is the seer and the artist  Poet is a visionary and creator, named next to kings, la  Rupture: chaos, gaia, tertoris and erros or whatever • Signifiy principle of existence • Errros as desireallows coupling of all the gods • Tartoros: the abyss, hell • Conditions of universe and familial relations • Psychological forces and abstractions • First gen driven by hatred and evil • Gaias hubby hides their children away o She’s monstrous, negative connotation o They castrated him WHILE HE WAS COPULATING with gaia • Throws the dick into the ocean, then Aphrodite is born (god of sexual desire) •  love has a violent element : leads to trojan war, aphro was born out of violence etc • Defeat of father by son through generations to achieve incest o One gen dominates older gen - This is a way to order the stories of creation of the gods and goddesses o Explains phenomenons o Metaphorical relationships (and your own experience, human psycology) o Deites o Justice and social order o Hesiod uses to criticise his society o His role as a poet gives authority to critique justice, society, etc o Relationship btwn humans and god  gods are jealous of humans, antagonistic  Gods world is way ickier than humans  Pandora created out of evil as a punishment  Image of modest virgin, but she aint  Great plague to mortals  Homeric Hymn to Demeter - Terrible goddess - Demeters daughter Persephone is captured by the underworld and raped - By hades - Demter desperately searches for her daughter - Goddess of harvest and fertility and shit – while she looked for P all the seasons stopped and crops died and all that - Upset about all this zeus summoned back P - Pomegranate – if she eats it she’s his fr one third of the year, and she does thinking she could deceive him but he knows so she stay w him for winter and when she comes back up, it’s thought of as springtime -  rape of Persephone is important for some reason - Idk why tho October 3, 2013 - History of hymn to Demeter: fills the gap left by Hesiod o Give us more info about existence of cults and cult practise o Instrumental o How you relate to god spiritually rather than what you do o Spiritual side of greek mythology o Synthesize religious practise from one place to another, bring greeks together into a unifed religion o Important mystery o Hymn dates 700 bce (650/550) o 6 century (telestarian-religious hall where people witness/participate in some sort of event) no altar, no sacrifice o Evidence of cult presence o With economic, urban etc Development comes changes in attitude towards death o Greeks: Immortality achieved through kleos – ti die in a good way, death accepted o Intramural burial -> common / family tombs, “gathered to your ancestors” individual life not imporatant, but your collective life with you famjam is o Your role in the collective of the family is important, ie ancestry etc o Gatherings at fam shrine – dead described as “wispy shapes between the earth” no real existence, can’t hurt you, sort of hover, no good place o 750 – shift towards more individual identity  popn growth o Displacement of people from the land cause too many o People had to move for jobs o Colonization o Urbanized o Change in attitude towards dead: more individual; you have your own role o Graves no longer inside the walls, but moving outside the city o Death is more feared and worrisome, more monuments o Monuments proclaims importance of the individual in death o You want to survive after death, you become special  o -- ie more fear of death  o Desire for continuity of indiv consciousness o Different mystery cults ??????????? o Persephone o Mysteries: characterized by secrecy  Elosinian mysteries//athens: if u divulge secrets, you would be killed   secrets guarded w state security  Mysteries were democratic, open to all greek speakers  Male, female, slave, free, could be initiated, but it was expensive  Pay to help someone in the afterlife  Started w washing a piglet (syms fertility) in the sea in Athens (piglet —slang for vag) you would experience intimiacy with it (bathing, fasting, carrying it around with you) then u sacrifice it (as a surrogate 4 u  ur reborn)  Aishrologia –talkin dirty (body language, ludeness) was celebrated in this festive atmosphere  When got to elusis, reenctment of hymn of Demeter  Mourn, sit in silence, light a torch, fasting, revelation of sacred object (ear of corn)  This divulged by clement who later become christain, so he revealed the mystery little worry abt spillin da beans  Reunion with Persephone (heai ceai rain and concieve)  Strong fertility component  ---------------- death and rebirth  No promise of immortality  Hymn + mystery cults = • Persephone abducted by hades • Agricultural myth • P symbolizes the seed wich goes back and up,  springtime return, sprouting, reawakening • D’s mad in winter cause Ps in underworld, therefore the earth is dead (winter) • Etiology for winter • D’s wandering  elostian mysteries , posed as menopausal woman • Nurse for initiate • When mother fails to rec goddess finalizes to line btwn immortal and human • Local cult  universal for greeks o Fesmophoia- festival for women  Men had to pay for women to attend  On the grreek parliament hill, everything taken over by women, men not allowed  Bathe w pggy and sacrifice it, with cakes  Then after 3 days the maggoty pigs we found and mixed with seeds, used to fertilize fields  Indulged in the dirty talk, ate food shaped like genitals  3 days  (Persephone dies and then comes up)  Rebirth  Mysteries draw on ideas of death and birth, becomes an analogy Descent of Ishtar - Acadian – tablets dating to first millennium bceishtars descent to under - world - To rescue dimousi (kidnapped into underworld) - Ishtar arrives at the gate – demands entry, and the farther she goes, the more royal garmets she loses (crown, beads, jewelry ec) then she nekkid - She sees her sista in her bday suit - In fetal position  presented as a corpes - Instead of rescuing D, she surrenders to underworld and then she dies of disease - When she dies, fertility and sexuality on earth ceases among ppl and animals - Iiiiiiiiiiieeeeeeeeeeee period of winter - Aya has a plan to get er back, sends a man to charm his way into rescuing her - Ishtar released by death from waters of life, comes back to earth - D clothed in red, sisters and other girls lament for him - Missing piece: reveals anana’s descent and she gets naked too and kicks her sister off her throne, then judged by anunoki—verdict called for punishement, she was killed and turned into slab of tainted meat - Loyal maid tries to seek help, enki helps ad sends professional mourners - Get slab of meat, sprinkle water of life and anana revives - She must send a surrogate to replace her, followed by demons - (no ones allowed to leave underworld) - Won’t let them have loyal maid, or gods, or anyone, - Dimousi not mourning but dessed nicely and hlding a feast, tells demons to take him - Dimousi and geshtanana split the time in underworld in the end -  grain (harvested and stored) summer o Dimousi god of grain o Beer vs wine o Geshtanan – wine o Alternating cycles of beer and wine, summer and winter o Danana reps storehouse , not a force of nature o Disrobing -- taking of stuf from storehouse o Enki reps spring, rain etc – revival o Gods rep plants myths eteologies to explain that meaning after death October 10, 2013 Ancient China - Confucius keeping his distance from god/religion o Death, social harmony de-emphasizing religious speculation - North is connected to dead dead is buried towards the north (medicine wheel-north as the end of life) - How do you harmonize yin and yang (5 elements) - Family, community, nation o If family can be ordered properly according to Confucian values, spills over to community and nation - No real cosmogonies o Not much speculation about gods and goddesses, most Chinese history doesn’t emphasize cosmogonic myths or god etc - Tien/heaven – figure of speech or actual ‘heavenly’ meaning? - pan ku – cosmic being at beginning of the world - 3 emporor kings of mythic status – writing/fishing, agriculture/commerce, & Huong Ti –Yellow emperor basically fictitious mythic rulers - 3 sage kings – yao, shun, yu o Models the virtues Confucius tries to instill with his teaching o Yu – founder of the first dynasty of china (Xia, Hsia) o Cusp of myth and having some supporting archeological evidence o Neohistory o Last ruler of dynasty passed down over generations was a tyrant  He was overthrown, next dynasty xiashang  Shang 1766-1122 bce  Archeological evidence discovery of oracle bones (divination??) scapulamancybone or tortoise shell  priest would predict stuff  Thses bits of bones were found in china (dragon bones) and made into a power used for medicine in teas etc, ancient calligraphy was eventually found  Bones date to shang dynasty period o Last shang ruler also became a tyrant, was replaced by another dude zhou dynasty confucius’s eventual birthplace  Wu (first king of new dynasty) died  Son too young to take the throne  Regent (temporary) ruler—wu’s brother  Relinquished kingship to the son once he was of age (righteous – most regents get drunk off power)  771 bce nomads forced zhou’s to move capital east, separated in earlier and later zhou, or western and easter  East – chaos, dynastic king lost power,  Compilation of confucius tezts take place during warring period of the states  How to create peace, harmony and social security in an unsafe, violent, unstable unharmonious environment o Confucius: 551-471 bce  Ancestors as minor aristocrats, family havin hard times  Dad died when he was young, had a tiger mom  Married at 19, kid at 20, job with the gov  Ritual, music, archery, chariot driving, calligraphy, arithmetic  Majestrate in his 50’s , became minister of justice in some city  Wanted to restore paradigmatic conditions of zhou dynasty  disgusted by people in his state, left looking for a ruler to hire him to implement his social program to restore a righteous society, but it didn’t happen  at around 68, returned to lu disappointed and jobless, and taught disciples & edited ancient Chinese literature  around 70, he followed his heart, life long development  dies at age 73  intellectual history October 17, 2013 Analects of Confucius - axial age – time of global religious systems coming about - Son & Fathers, protection, loyalty  all human relationships o Rely on ritual (li) to solidify relationships  Ie. Shaking hands, politeness etc o Decorum – how you present yourself to others – dress, manners, etcLi o Relationship between rights and ritual & humanity and the gentleman - Ren – humaneness, benevolence, etc - If ruler demonstrates decorum (acts like a ruler), common person will follow them, look up to them live up to professional code - De – virtue o Confucius believes that guiding people with virtue and education on etiquette will produce good people and reform people, rather than jailing them etc - North - T’ian ming – decree/mandate of heaven: “I understood the decree of heaven” o Li – emperor rules with the mandate of heaven yet these dynasties and kingdoms fell//final king lost mandate of heaven because he became a tyrant o Divine right of kings – kingship connected to divine will o Mystique element about a king – society needs myths to authorize power and create order - Benevolence//ren  “man” or “humaneness, benevolence” o Correct relationship, how people treat one another o To be human is to have relationships o Manlinessconfucius humanizes word, says it means to be a humane person rather than macho and manly o Taken conventional definition of man and changing/shifting the meaning o The Gentleman – chun-tzu/junzison of the lord/nobleman  Confucuis – true gentleman are not by birth, but by themselves, their own behaviour etc • Siddhartha (Buddha) – Arians as noble onesbuddha says true noble people are ones whobehave with virtue, not those who were born into it, ie. Caste system etc  Contrasts with small man  “gentleman is no vessel”not an implement/tool with narrow knowledge, but rather a broad education, can think as well as act rather than just act Tao de Ching – October 22, 2013 - Lao tzu – the old master - Problematizes Confucius view on learning - Confidence that studying humanities makes you humane? - Does education make you a better person - Recommendation is to unlearn, harmonize with nature - Wu wei – non action:non courseive, actionless activity, - More room for women - More materialistic as opposed t analects - Wang pi - 500 yrs after tao de ching October 24, 2013 - Consciousness arises out of unconscious o Unity - Tiamot – original condition of the time before time (enuma elish) watery dragon, o Tao te ching likes water as a creative fore that always takes low position but is incomparable o Uncarved block – states before things were into separate entities - Tao doesn’t impose itself, just does its thing, not in yo face - Wu wei – non coersive activity - Nature simply unfolds?? Tao accomplishes its task by claiming nothing to meritsage ruler does his thang unobtrusively - The mysterious female: female is ultimately most powerful force in taoist perspective - Concept of the babe(y): it’s head is not filled with artificial content such as education o ie uncarved block o Hasn’t lost integrity of original oneness - Tao is forever namesless, way is forever nameless - In the world there is notuhing more submissive and weak than water, yet nothing can surpass it, we need it - Creation story in tao te ching: hints of one ch.42-sequence of how you go into this world from primordial history the begetting o the myriad creatures - Yin/yang – masc/feminine, dualism, (not antagonistic) they compliment eachother – whole world is the blending of yinyang. Flow of y/y through the body – chi November 7, 2013 Bible stuff, genesis I think “In the beginning, God created…” - Bereshit: reshit is beginning, be-in/on, bara: ccreate Elohim:god, hebrewic - Hermeneutics – theory of interpretation - Phsat – lit - Remez – allegory - Drash – homiliy (moral instruction etc) - Sod – mystical o All relevant and part of the text - Adama - dirt (adam made of dirt) - God forbids adam to eat from the forbidden tree - God then creates eve so adam is not alone - This happened cause adam tried out all the animals and one “fit” November 12 2013 - God curses adam and eve for touching the forbidden fruit (the snake ie satan said to eat it) - Knowledge of good and evil makes one ashamed - curse:painful childbirth yet she’s still gonna desire sex, and she is subordinate to her husband - justification of women’s inequity - mysoginistic implications - snake as redeemer figure to lead them towards knowledge - antinomian – rebellion, overturning of traditional laws and rules (agnostics) - covenant – contract between humans and god - narrative that creats affinity and estrangement November 14, 2013 - Genesis: 12/55 patriarchal narrative, founding myth of Israel, identity of people chosen by god for a purpose - Antidilubian and stuff - Elements about it that seem historical, no archaeological evidence of exodus etc - Patriarchal narrative: to construct sentiments of affinity and estrangement, unify 12 tribes as descendants from this family o Combination of two separate traditions o Older: Jacob - north o Abraham – lives in Ur, god comes to him and says “go” from here, even though I am not known to you, listen to me, and I’ll make you a great kingdom in this land o Abe goes but finds Canaanites already living there o Prediction of aabe’s children being enslaved and oppressed for 400 yrs ie the exodus in Egypt etc then be freed bla bla bla o God makes promise concrete through the ritual – covenant: sacrificed the animals, sealed the deal o Gives him ishameal, asks him to circumcise him o Abram turns into Abraham yay o Circumcision become a mark of the covenant - are women then a part of the convenant? o Whole religion is based on gods promised land o Hahahahahhahahahahahahahhahahahahahah o Gives him Isaac after a billion years then tell him to sacrifice him o Jesus is the messiah, the anointed to fulfill a kingly role November 19 2013 Intro to india - Ganesh – first deity to be worshipped by hindus, god of beginnings, removes obstacles in your way etc - Swastika as ancient hindu symbol duh o Four directions - India has a billion people, tons of religions and languages - 330 million gods and dieties - Land of india in the tradtitions of Hinduism becomes sacred land - India as the mother, goddesss of the earth and landharnessed by those trying to get sovereignty from the british etc - Application of myth and symbol to a political process in history - Shiva vs Vishnu - Advanced writing system that indicates early manifestation of early indian civilization - Vedas- sanscrit vit to know, sacred knowledge is vedas - Rig vega – 1000 hymns, creation, cosmogony, etc - Oldest contain vedac detites – the rig veda - In ancient times these weren’t written, but memorised and recited orally - Continued eastword into iran, afganistan, etc - Moved into gangesupanishads, end of the vedas - Arians – self designated noble race, spoke Sanskrit o Dyaus pitr – zeus o Language and words are powerful when recited, chanted, in rituals, etc o Central to vedac and arian religion o Practise sacrifice – fire alters, offer grain, butter, animals, and ritually intonate vedac hymns o Ugni – fire, god in first book – body personified as fire o Priest as a mediator between heaven and earth o Ugni as the priest o Mantra- sacred prayer formula that has power through its recitiation o Ugni brings offerings to other gods and chants o Indira – warrior ideal of vedac culture, weapon is firebolt - Original sacrifice – chants were born, animals came, mantras born, caste system originated o Caste partially based o segregation, racial discrimination - More primordial god than ugni and indira November 26 2013 - Text legitimizes class hierarchy - Animal sacrifices etc o Something had to die etc to create the world o Original unified being of urusha – chpped up to create trees lakes humans animals etc o Sacrifice transitions from one to many Discussion group: caste system + thousands of religions in india, contradiction - Was the hierarchy system influeneced by that of the godsédietitesÉ was it a misinpterpretation? Like did people jus start the caste system cause people are generally assholes - Aryans Study Sheet for the HUMS 1000 midterm. Feel free to add any notes or question you have about any of the texts studied in class. Also, feel free to reorganize or reformat this page. Parts of the Exam Part A: Fill in the blanks with terms, character names and important pieces of the texts. (20%) Part B: Choose 5 passages and identify - the speaker/author/the context of the text/its relevance to key features of the course/any cross-cultural dynamics found in myth or religion. (40%) NB: You can substitute one passage of your own choosing as long as it is fully memorized and you can cite it. Part C: Essay - Topics include: 1. Death/Mortality/Immortality 2. Cosmogonic Myths 3. How humans relate to the gods - divine/human relationships 4. Ritual ways of dealing with death NB: Write an outline because they can give you part marks if you do not have time to finish. Be broad and make comparisons. (40%) Please post any important lines or verses Vocab Hermeneutics: The theory of interpretation Cosmogony: Creation of a universe Theogony: Creation of gods Theodicy: Divine justice Theophany: When gods encounter man, or materialize Li: Ritual, the rights Ren: Humaneness, benevolence T'ian Ming: Decree of Heaven Timé : Honour Etiology: Story to explain the world in mythological terms Sacrifice: To set apart Profane: Outside the temple/ordinary Mythos: Anything spoken/discourse Epos: Human Narration Logos: Rationally structured discourse Kitchi Manitou: Great Spirit Syncretism: Blending/Intermingling of cultures Axis Mundi: Centre of the World Panhellenism: Greek Pride and Superiority Barbaros: other (Not Greek speaking) Barbarian: not Greek Panhellenic: Systemization of the Greeks Kleos: Immortal honour preserved in literature/songs/epics Diké: Justice Telesterion: Initiation Hall (centric to the Eleusinian Mysteries) Feng Shui: Balance and Harmony Yin: Feminine/darkness/moisture/cold/West/North Yang:Masculine/light/dryness/heat/South/East Scapulimancy: Using bones and etchings made upon them to predict the future (Used during the Shang Dynasty's existence) Yi Jing/I Ching: Book of Changes Shujing: Book of History Shijing: Book of odes and poetry Li Jing: How to perform rituals and etiquette Tian Ming: Decree of Heaven Xiao: Father/Son relationship (filial piety) Li: Ritual, Convention, leads to Ren Ren: Humaneness De: Virtue Shu: Golden Rule/use yourself as a benchmark/guide Exegesis: Explain the text Esigesis: Project your own opinion upon the text Wu Wei: Non-Activity Midrash: Creative way of reading into the text (the Bible) used by rabbis Ruach: Wind or Spirit Behochmah: With wisdom Pshat: surface meaning Remez: Allegory Drash: homily/what does it mean to teach Sod: secret/mystical Elohim: God Bereshit: In the head/start/beginning Logos: Word (Greek) En Sof: Without Life Binah: Womb Ketr: Thought Holecha: The Law Midrech Holecha: Narrative Tenom: void (link to Tiamat) In case you've never been to a Bible Lecture: Yhwh: Lord Elohim: God Bara: To create/Created Anires'hit: I am the beginning Keter: Crown Ish: Man Adam: Man Adamah: Dirt Eve: the one who gives life Gnosis: knowledge Eons: ???? Anti-Nomian: against the laws Ascetics: abstain from fun Covenant: Contract between humans and God (sign or seal) Ishah: Woman Sophia: Wisdom Aria: The Noble ones Dyaus Pitr: Sky father (origin of Zeus and Jupiter) Agni: Fire Pontius: Bridge Builder Dasa: servant Varna: Colour Soma: Hashish/Cannibis resin or liquor (different speculations) Vadante: to speak Sut: Being Asut: not being Antinomian: Against laws and order Avram: Father Avraham: Father of many Israel: He who wrestles with God Messiah: That which is anointed Sut: Being Assut: Non-Being Tapas: Heat Kāma: Desire El: Canaanite God Moses: Son Questions Paden Article · Myth in modern society is viewed negatively(people don’t take it seriously) · Language of Symbol · Grounding Prototypes: models for modern behaviour (not relevant if not found under prototype) · Dissenchantment of the world--for modern society, world is very scientific · Insider v. outsider approach · Myth is beyond time, ordered based on timelessprecedents · Myth orders space · Insiders receive the text in a much more activeway · Myth has a “career”, changes over time--does not only look back, but also forward · Myths are engaging and participatory · Myths are interpreted in a manner that is reflective of a culture's people and their needs Lincoln Article · Focused on dynamic aspect of myth, interested inpower relationships · time, space (axis mundi), society, identity, word (authority) · Begins with 2 scenes from modern history · Myths are narratives, the authority by which welive · Trotsky used slogans to mobilize his followers · When does relevant time begin? · What texts/narratives are relavent? · Myth molds modern events · Makes identities more concrete- myth tells uswho we are · Affinity v. estrangement · Italy/Sienna/Florence example: Individuallyresent one another, but will unite when fighting others · Abrahamic religions should all get along, but focusingon undividuals can devide groups · Fable- notruth · Legend-truth, no authority · History-truth and authority · Myth-truth and authority and credibility · Narratives can be demoted (i.e. minotaur andBible), promoted (Holocaust and 9/11) · Promotion=don’t let this happen again · One can challenge the status ofmyth/fable/legend and advance lines of interpretation Anishinaabe Mythology · Kitchi-Manitou (God) purified the earth withwater · Sounds similar to bible( through either diffusionor invention): · Least likely character becomes the greatest ofthem all- muskrat · Sacrifice must occur for earth to begin anew-creation of the world is frequently a sacrificial process · The one must be sacrificed in order to createthe many · EtiologicalMyth: A fable that explains a phenomenon · Water=cross-cultural element, symbol of time before time/creation Native Jesus (not really politically correct title but you get what imgetting at): · Nanaboozhoo/Nanabush(Ojibway)= part Manitou/parthuman · He is called Gluskap in Miqmaq and Whiskey Jackin Cree Medicine Wheel · 4seasons, 4 peoples, 4 stages of life · 4aspects: physical, mental, emotional, spiritual · White: air,sweetgrass (hair of mother earth), night time, elder stage, winter, spiritual · Yellow:spring, rising sun, fire elements, tobacco, infancy, physical · Red:plants, summer, earth, cedar tree, noon/afternoon, time of youth, mind · Black:animal kingdom, fall, water, sage, emotional 7 Fires Prophecy · Originated after contact but there is no way toknow exactly when · 4th prophet predicted light-skin racecoming · 2nd being of 4th prophetmight wear face of death that looks like face of brotherhood · 5th prophet- joy and salvation · elders will become sick and die · written expos-facto- takes on what already hashappened · 8th fire- messianic hope for future Enuma Elish - a story of maturity - For infant to mature, it must abject from its mother (ie. make mom taboo) - The mother is omnipotent and the source of life. - Therefore, she is the source of fear (fear of losing mom/fear of rejection from mother/fear of being absorbed) - Marduk abjects mother by killing her - As Propoganda - Marduk is symbolically establishing Babylon as divinely superior to the other city states - Marduk is symbolically supplanting the old order - Old order: Gods reflect nature, the powers of fertility, focus on the cycles or nature, worship Tiamat - New Order: Rise of the individual, rise of the hero/warrior king - Paden: Enuma Elish is about orderingthe cosmos, creating time, creating space inwhich people live, creates the religious centre, man’s position as god’s slave, legitimizes king’s authority asMurdock’s representative. Gilgamesh ***most of this is just a general recount of the story but there are a few notes in there - not sure on the relevence to what the format of the exam will be. edit Theogony Background · Ordering of Gods · Panhellenism-the idea of advocacy of a politicalunion of all greeks · Greeks were very proud/arrogant · Anyone outside of Greece was seen as barbaric · Theo. Is the first attempt to synthesize ancientgreek religion and to institute power/civil law · Divine taxonomies reflect the universe as it is · Deities are personifications · DIKÉ(justice) replaces TIMÉ(honour) · Homer and Hesiod regarde as Holy/Authoritative · The stories evolved · Bards would wander around telling them, peoplewould give them money/ food to change story which caused certain versions todrop out of use (competition) · GOD= divine other Hesiod’s Goals(critiqued through narrative framework): 1. Good of Human Society 2.
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