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Lecture

ISCInote14


Department
Interdisciplinary Science
Course Code
ISCI 1001
Professor
John Buschek

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ISCI 1001 A Nov 26 2013
Climate Change
-Earth’s energy balance
-Incoming solar energy (340 w/m2)
-23% absorbed by the atmosphere
-29% reflected by the atmosphere
-48% absorbed at surface
-Surface energy budget
-48% coming in
-25% going out (evaporation)
-5% going out (convection)
-17% going out (??)
-Atmosphere energy budget
-23% absorbed
-59% going out (thermal radiation from atmosphere)
-12% going out (thermal radiation from surface)
-Atmospheric factors that affect climate
-Gases -> global warming potentials
-CO2
-CH4 methane All increasing in
-N2O (nitrous oxide) concentration
-HFC-23 (halocarbons)
-Feedbacks (+) (-)
(+) -Temp inc -> water evap -> GHG -> gaseous H2O inc -> temp inc
-Positive change in temp = positive change in temp
(-) -Temp inc -> water evap -> gaseous H2O inc – clouds form -> temp dec
-Positive change in temp = negative change in temp
-Aerosols
-Can also produce pos. or neg. effects
-Tiny droplets float in the atmosphere
-Soot particles (black)-> trap energy -> temp inc
-Other particles (lighter) -> reflect energy -> temp dec
-Radiation forcing
-Positive forcing increases surface temperature
-Negative decreases it
-Earth today compared to 1750
-Forcing (+) 1.6 w/m2
-Non-Atmospheric
-Factors that affect insolation
-Wobble (precession)
-Tilt
-Changes in orbital shape/size
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