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January 14, Linguistics.docx

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LING 1001
Karin Nault

LING 1001B January 14,2014 Phonetics Three aspects - Articulatory o What parts of the mouth are use and what kind of configuration o Tools used : x-rays and point tracking devices (electromagnetic articulograph)  Looks for contact between tongue and palate - Acoustic o Characteristics of the sounds being produced by the articulation o Tools used: sound spectrographs; speech analyzer (PRAAT) - Auditory o How humans process speech sounds o Tools used: simple experimental methods, MRI, CT How we know what is important in phonectics? - Spoken language= sounds and pronunciations - Signed language= parameters are not defined Simplest way to collect phonetic analysis - Transcribing texts Phonetic alphabet - Used to write out pronunciations of words in brackets with varying symbols - Correspondence: one symbol= one sound - Phonetic transcriptions use a different alphabet so you can show exactly how a word is being pronounced. - Sounds that distinguish words need to have different symbols (thy vs thai) - One representation for sounds whose difference arise from context (‘k’ in keep vs ‘k’ in cool) LING 1001B January 14,2014 - Symbols are consistent and unambiguous Types of speech sounds - Segment consonants and vowels - Suprasegments are across a string of segments (they are the stresses on words) o Having a present vs. presenting a gift Consonants vs. Vowels o Consonants: constricted air flow o Vowels; free air flow Syllables - Unit of speech - Monosyllabic words (uh) - Multisyllabic words (words) (Brackets mean that there is nothing there to be applied [onset & coda]) Example: conscious - Nucleus is the centre of the word/ syllable - Syllables want to maximize onset - Phontatic sequence is a sequence permitted in the language o Ex psychology and its pronunciation o This would create a syllable boundary in the p and s Vowels Types of vowels - Monophthongs o One configuration of the mouth and vocal tract - Diphthongs o Complex vowels and has two or more configurations LING 1001B January 14,2014 International Phonetic Alphabet - Applicable to all human languages - Has all the properties of a useful phonetic alphabet - Different levels of transcription details o Broad transcriptions to very fine level o
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