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January 16, Linguistics.docx

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Carleton University
LING 1001
Karin Nault

LING 1001 B  • January 16, 2014 Review - /p/ sounds is different in pin ad pin [p in] vs. [spin] - But, the sounds do no differentiate a meaning English h [p in] and [pin] Allophones  • Phones belonging to the same phoneme /t/ phoneme [t] [tʰ] [̚] allophones Night rate [‘nʌit.r eit] Tongue Articulation  It can be: - raised - lowered - thrust forward - retracted - rolled back - sides can be raised or lowered Parts of the Tongue  Diagram on page 48 of textbook (KNOW IT, VERY IMPORTANT) – Tip – narrow area at the front – Blade – just behind the tip – Body – main mass of the tongue – Back – hindmost part – Body + back = dorsum – Root = contained in the upper part of the throat Types of Sounds Manner of articulation  • Modification of airstream by the vocal tract to produce sound Oral vs. Nasal Sounds – Velum raised : Oral • No air to nasal cavity – Velum lowered (sunn, summ) : nasal – Ex. Bank has a nasalized vowel (pinch your nose and if you can’t say the word properly any more then it is nasalized) Stops  • Complete closure – In the oral cavity – At the glottis (Glottal stop ‘uh-oh’) • Found at following points of articulation (English ✔) – Bilabial (b) ✔ – Dental – Alveolar ✔ – Palatal – Velar ✔ – Uvular – Glottal (uh-oh) ✔ Fricatives (frication) • Nearly complete obstruction of the vocal tract – /s/ raise your tonge up close to the velar ridge • Continuous airflow through the mouth • Continuous audible noise • Escaping air is turbulent àturbulent noise • Belong to the class of continuants (vowels, fricatives, glides) – Because of the continuous sound fricatives make • Found at following points of articulation in English – Labiodental – Interdental – Alveolar – Post- Alveolar – Glottal Affricates  – The tongue moves quickly from a stop to a fricative – Sequence of two movements you (you have a top then a fricative) Official IPA notation [ t͡ʃ ] and [d͡ʒ] o Makes it look like there is one sound associated under the arch • Found at following point of articulation in English – Alveopalatal Sibilants  - Fricatives and affricates o Very intense sounds ex. SHHHHH, PSSSTTT o Used to get attention Nasals  • Nasal stops – Velum lowered • Found at following points of articulation in English – Bilabial – Alveolar – Velar • Sing [siŋ] nothing starts with [ŋ] Liquids  The l’s and r’s of all languages – No turbulence when you produce theses sounds • Sometimes act as vowels – May form syllabic nucl
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