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Lecture

LING 1001_Feb_6_2014.docx

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Department
Linguistics
Course
LING 1001
Professor
Karin Nault
Semester
Winter

Description
LING 1001B 2014-02-06 Finishing up Last Class NOTE: MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND AND MEMORIZE THE POHNECTIC ALPHABET PHONEME = IT HAS ALLOPHONES; IT IS NOT EQUAL TO WHAT WE HEAR ALLOPHONE= THE SOUNDS WE HEAR ASSIMILTION= WHERE ONE SOUND STARTS TO SOUNDS LIKE ANOTHER SOUND Voiceless stop followed by a liquid creates a voiceless stop [p,t] Voicing assimilation • Please • Proud • Have to Flapping • Dental and alveolar stop articulation changes to a flap [ɾ] - Tapping (Flapping?) Phonetical distinction Wha• aMetalthe – Flap involves a rapid movement of the word barter? Is tongue tip from a retracted vertical / position to a more horizontal position – tongue tip touches the alveolar ridge medal – Tap involves a rapid backwards and forwards movement of the tongue tip. Neute • The sixth sheik’s sixth sheep is sick. • • The fifth sheik’s fourth sheep is sick • She sells seashells by the seashore. Dissimilation • Two sounds become less alike in articulatory or acoustic terms. • Sequence is easier to articulate and distinguish LING 1001B 2014-02-06 • Rarer than assimilation • Fifths, fifths, fifths watch the transition [fɪfθs] à [fɪfts] Latin Example into English  - • -al – Anecdotal -ar – Annual • – Mental • A – Penal – Spiritual n – venal g Deletion  • Removal of a segment in certain phonetic contexts • If you read the words, do you really produce all the same sounds as your neighbor? • Fast speech deleted some sounds in words • Ask [æs] • Ask Katie [æsketi] • Used to [jus tə] • Caterpillar- Canterbury - reservo- governor (THE /R/ GETS DELETED) ə ­ heletion in English  [sə.p owz] à [spowz] (suppose) [p ə.ɹejdà [pɹejd][r is devoiced here] (parade) /h æ n d b æ g/ deletion h æ n b æ g LING 1001B 2014-02-06 h æ̃n b æ g h æ̃m b æ g What happened here?  [ h æ̃m b æ g ] assimilation assimilation Alveolar stop requires a alveolar nasal preceding  [əˈpɛnθəsɪs]  • Insertion of a syllabic or a non-syllabic segment within an existing string of segments. • If consonants are inserted, it shares properties with the surrounding environment [ˈhæmpstəɹ] [ˈwɔɹmpθ] [ˈfɛnts] [ˈɪŋɡələnd] [ˈtjunəɹ ɔɪl] - Hamster we all add the /p/ when we pronounce the word LING 1001B 2014-02-06 - [stɹɛŋkθs] there is no k in the word strength - If you insert a consonant it assimilates the voicing to what follows it and is placed to what precedes it Metathesis  • Changes the order of segments • Asks vs axes in a senetces Prescribe à perscribe [æks] [æsk] à [mækəɹoni] à [mæɹəkoni] Vowel reduction  • Articulation of vowel moves to a more central position • [k æ] Continuation Phonology  Dataset  /danat + kvià [dantakvial‘millipede’ //->[] the a changes location /ukar + ppalà [ukrappalu] ‘index finger’ same as above /ukar + lavaà [ukarlavan] ‘thumb// ->[]no change because cannot have triple consonants LING 1001B 2014-02-06 - What is the change from first column to the second? - This is consonant vowel Metathesis Strengthening/Fortition  • Make sounds stronger. • English aspiration rule is a rule of strengthening • Weakening/Lenition • Cause sounds to become weaker • English ‘flapping’ rule is a rule of lenition Rule ordering  Have to insert schwa because condition UR /kæt-z/ /dɔg–z/ /fɑks-z/ /bɹɪd͡ʒ-z/ environment impacts idea ə-insertion --- --- fɑksəz bɹɪd͡ʒəz Voicing rule kæts --- --- --- PR [kæts] [dɔgz] [fɑksəz] [bɹɪd͡ʒəz] What we hear Rule ordering  UR /kæt-z/ /dɔg–z/ /fɑks-z/ /bɹɪd͡ʒ-z/ Voicing rule kæts --- fɑkss ə- insertion --- --- fɑksəs bɹɪd͡ʒəz PR [kæts] [dɔgz] * [fɑksəs] [bɹɪd͡ʒəz] Obligatory and optional rules  • Obligatory English rules – Aspiration – Vowel nasalization – Vowel lengthening – Liquid and glide devoicing – English phonotactic nasal rule • Nasal and stop sequence must have the same place of articulation Possible Words? LING 1001B 2014-02-06 Spink Stronk Bleng Pilt ping • T Stmirz • fthfiz • stimt • • [spɪnt] [sp •
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