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LING 1001B Feb_4_2014.docx

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Carleton University
LING 1001
Karin Nault

LING 1001B 2014-02-04 Review • Suprasegmentals – “riding on top of sounds” – often on vowel sounds • Length – how long the duration of a sound is (C + V) • Intonation – the way some languages changes in pitch to express sentence level meanings (i.e. question, disbelief, declarative statements, surprise, doubt, etc.) • Tone – also involves how a language uses pitch (in tone languages pitch signals changes in meaning) • Stress – about prominence. Makes syllables stand out as more salient than others in a word (i.e., louder, longer, of higher pitch). Meaningful difference in English, PREsent versus preSent. Important  • We cannot just memorize the pronunciation, all the details of pronunciation, of every single word in a language. • Why not? Generalization  • Psychologist Berko-Gleason’s Wug- experiment (1958) • Study on how children pronounced words – Their cognitive language lexicons are not fully formed so they could not pronounce words that they had never heard before • How to pronounce words involves knowing a system • Simply assuming that we memorize the pronunciation of every individual word fails to capture significant generalizations about how our language works. • People want to be able to have groups of words, cluster though process • Aspiration of first segments Lack of release on the final segments – Pick - pick – Kit - kit – Tip -tip LING 1001B 2014-02-04 Phonological rules we have permantly memorized – natural grammar (Un)predictability  • Vocabulary is arbitrary – We need to memorize by brute force – Two levels of representation • Pronunciation is not totally unpredictable – We need to memorize what is a systematically predictable aspect of the way sounds are realized in a language Two levels of Representation  • Phonemic level of representation = UR (underlying representation) – Minimal amount of phonological information we need to know about a given word – Board transcription • Allophonic level of representation = PR (phonetic representation) – All aspects of the pronunciation of that given word – Details of words (any possible changes are treanscribed here) Phonological rules  • Relate/map the UR to the PR This is map from rules to – Pick phonetic transcription UR (phonemes) – UR /p lk/ Rule • Aspiraition rule =h Rule • Unreleased stop rule = ̚ PR (allophones) – PR [ph Ik ̚] • Phonemes are unpredictable • Allophones are predictable realizations of phonemes • Distinctive versus non-distinctive • Aspiration in English does not distinguish one word from another • Vs. in Hindi aspiration can change the meaning of the word (distincitive) LING 1001B 2014-02-04 English Hindi Aspiration Non-distinctive Distinctive Minimal pair  = a pair of words that are identical in every way except for one sound - Ex. Pick and tick - One segment is different - Changes the meaning - Identical except one sound Near minimal pair= closely related in sound but not as close as minimal Minimal pairs’ golden rules  1. They must have the same number of sounds 2. They must be identical in every sound except for one 3. The sound that differs must be in the same position in each word 4. The words must have different meanings 1. [p ] [ɪ] [t] [p ] [ʊ] [t]  h h 2. [p ] [ɪ] [t] [p ] [ʊ] [t]  3. [p ] [ɪ] [t] [p ] [ʊ] [t]  4. ‘hole in the ground’ ‘16 century card game ’  Overlapping distribution  = Two sounds appear in the same context/environments. • The differing sound in a minimal pair is not restricted to appearing in a place the other can’t. • Both sounds can appear in the same place, but with different meanings. • Pick and tick • The /p/ and /k/ are reverable in position in differeing environments – tip and kick LING 1001B 2014-02-04 Complementary distribution  • If two sounds are in complementary distribution – No minimal pairs can be found that make an important difference – They cannot be found in the same context/environment – Only find aspirated voiceless stops in the beginning of words – Think of : Superman (regular stop) and Clark Kent (aspirated stop) can never have the two in the same context • So same phoneme but only one appears at a time in specific environment Contrastive versus non­contrastive sounds  • In (most) overlapping distribution: they contrast • In complimentary distribution: they do not contrast – Pick and tick contrast (different meaning) Phoneme versus allophone  • Phonemes are abstractions = // – In the lexicon, tells us what the meaning is • We hear allophones – Exactly what we hear – You hear voiceless stop being aspirated Free variation • ‘Pick’ – [p ɪ k]̚ hard /k/ Unreleased voiceless velar stop – [p ɪ k] soft /k/ And released voiceless velar stop – No change in meaning, overlapping distribution – They do not contrast - Minimal pair? o No rule #4 does not apply h h - [p ɪ k]̚ and [p ɪ k] have the same meaning à not a minimal pair! = Free variation LING 1001B 2014-02-04 • Two sounds may be in the same context • They are not distinctive Minimal pairs Same meanings // phoneme [k] [k] allophone CONTRASTIVE different phonemes FREE VARIATION Allophones of the same phonemes [n] and [m] [k] and [k] ̚ Different meanings No minimal pairs or near-minimal pairs sounds occur in different environments COMPLEMENTARY DIST
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