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Lecture 3

LACS 1002 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Landlocked Country, Emancipation Day, West Indies Federation


Department
Latin American and Caribbean Studies
Course Code
LACS 1002
Professor
Silvina Danesi
Lecture
3

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Independence Process Consequences: LACs at the end of the
19th Century: Independence of Spanish America, Brazil and the
British West Indies
- Haiti: only Caribbean country to achieve independence in the 1st quarter of the 19th century
- French Revolution; invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte of Spain and Portugal
Independence of Spanish America
- 1808: Napoleon invaded Spain & imprisoned Ferdinand VII (Spanish King)
- 1810: Criollos established “provisional governments in the name of Ferdinand VII”
- Criollos in the colonies were happy with the imprisonment
- proposal: We will rule the colonies until the king is released
- tentative autonomy
- revolt started in both viceroyalties
- 1814: Napoleon defeated by Allied Powers: Austria, Prussia, Russia, U.K.
- Ferdinand VII returns to the throne and reestablishes Spanish control over the colonies
- Criollos move from tentative autonomy to open declarations of independence
The “Libertadores”
- Simon Bolivar
- Bolivar’s principles: freedom, independence, unity (of the different countries)
- wanted to unify the continent into one country; both central and south america
- 1819-1832: Simon Bolivar fought against the Spanish army; liberated/declared independence
of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador and Upper Peru (Bolivia)
- created Gran Colombia, composed of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Ecuador
- Jose de San Martin
- 1816-1821: liberated Argentina, Chile and Peru (never unified)
- Agustin de Iturbide
- 1821: declared independence of Mexico; Sept 21; supported by Mexican elites; declared
himself emperor of Mexico; lasted only three years
- 1861: Mexico defaulted on debts owed to Britain, France and Spain; invaded by three
countries; UK and Spain left; France wanted to establish a monarchy; defeated May 5th;
holiday known as Cinco de May
- from Guatemala to Costa Rica, one country: the United Provinces of Central America
Haiti and the Dominican Republic
- Haiti declared independence from France in 1804
- 1696: Spain ceded 1/3 of Hispaniola to France; capitals: St Domingue and Santo Domingo
- slaves worked on plantations of sugar, indigo, coffee, cotton “The Pearl of the Antilles”
- 1822: Haiti invaded Santo Domingo; all of Hispaniola became Haiti
- 1844: Dominican Republic declared independence from Haiti
Cuba
- 1898: Spanish troops leave Cuba; war between Spain and the US; government of Cuba
handed over from Spain to the US; US intervention lasted until the 1st Cuban election 1901
- 1901 Cuban gained formal independence from the US in 1902;
- US Congress passed the Platt Amendment in 1902 to the 1901 Army Appropriations Bill
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