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Lecture 4

LAWS 2302 Reading Notes - Week 4.pdf

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Department
Law
Course
LAWS 2302
Professor
Paolo Giancaterino
Semester
Winter

Description
January  28  Chapter  4:  Unfulfilled  Crimes  and  Participation  in  Crimes   • S.24  of  the  Criminal  Code:  Attempt  to  commit  a  crime  is  prohibited   o Any  act  beyond  mere  participation  may  be  sufficient  actus  reus  for  attempted  crime   § However,  crown  must  prove  beyond  reasonable  doubt  that  there  was  intent   o A  person  who  counsels  or  solicits  a  crime  may  be  guilty  of  counselling  or  conspiracy,  even  if  the  cri me  was  never   committed   • S.21(1)(b)(c)  of  Criminal  Codes:  Those  who  assists  the  person  in  actually  committing  the  crime  through  aiding  and   abetting  are  guilty  as  parties  of  the  same  criminal  offense  as  the  person  who  commits  the  crime   A.  Attempts   • S.  463  Attempted  Crimes:  Someone  guilty  of  attempted  crime  is  usually  subject  to  ½  of  the  longest  possible  term  to  which  a   guilty  person  of  the  completed  offense  is  liable   • Half  sentence  rule  doesn’t  always  apply  (ex  whats  half  of  life?)   1. Mens  Rea  for  Attempts   § The  Fault  element,  most  important  element  of  attempted  crimes  and  actus  reus  is  the  necessary  element   § Ancio  principle:  “certain  mental  elements,  other  than  the  intent  to  kill,  may  lead  to  conviction  of  murder   where  there  has  been  a  killing  does  not  mean  that  anyth ing  less  than  an  intent  to  kill  will  suffice  for  an   attempt  at  murder   • Nothing  less  than  the  specific  intent  to  obtain  the  prohibited  result  will  suffice     2. Actus  Reus  for  Attempts   § If  the  acts  have  gone  beyond  the  steps  of  mere  preparation   § Canadian  courts  have  not  been  able  to  universally  define  a  prohibited  act  in  criminal  attempts   • “precise  and  satisfactory  definition  of  actus  reus  is  impossible  because  cases  must  be  determined   by  their  own  facts   o Nature  of  events  and  those  specific  acts…   § Acts  don’t  even  have  to  be  prohibited   3. Impossibility  and  Attempts   § A  person  can  be  guilty  whether  or  not  it  was  possible  under  those  circumstances  to  commit  the  offense   • Ex.  Stealing  a  wallet  with  no  money  in  it   • Meaning  impossibility  is  not  a  defense  for  attempt   § Legal  impossibility  would  be  like  “attempted  manslaughter”   B.  Conspiracy   • Occurs  before  a  completed  offence  is  committed   • Crown  only  needs  to  prove  “meeting  of  the  minds”  of  a  common  design  to  commit  a  crime,  agreement  can  be  an  implicit  or   tacit  agreement,  through  actions  and  words   1. So  no  written  agreement  needs  to  be  made   • Conspiracy  is  more  preliminary  crime  than  attempt,  since  the  offence  is  considered  to  be  complete  before  any  acts  are   taken  that  goes  beyond  preparation  to  put  a  plan  into  effect   • S.465(1)(c):  Everyone  who  conspires  with  anyone  to  commit  an  indictable  offence  is  guilty  of  an  indictable  offence  and  is   liable  to  the  same  punishment  as  that  to  which  an  accused  who  is  guilty  of  that  offense  would,  on  conviction,  be  liable   1. Actus  Reus  of  Conspiracy   § An  agreement  to  carry  out  the  completed  offense   • “fact  of  agreement”   § Must  be  an  agreement  and  meeting  of  minds  to  commit  the  offense   § A  person  can  be  convicted  of  conspiracy  even  if  the  co -­‐conspirators  are  not  convicted*   • So  long  as  there  is  an  overall  continuing,  changes  in  methods  of  operation,  personnel,  victims,   would  not  bring  the  conspiracy  to  an  end   § Attempted  conspiracy  is  not  recognized,  due  to  the  risk  of  extending  the  law  too  far  to  “merely  bad   thoughts”   2. Mens  Rea  for  Conspiracy   § “intention  to  agree”  &  “intention  t o  put  the  common  design  in  effect”   § If  there  is  no  intention  to  agree  then  they  can’t  be  convicted   3. Impossibility  and  conspiracy   § Same  as  being  unable  to  claim  impossibility  as  a  defense  for  attempted  crime,  any  persons  can  conspire  to   commit  a  crime  even  if  it  was  impossible   • Actus  Reus:  agreement   • Mens  Rea:  intention  to  agree  
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