Criminal Justice System Class 5.odt

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29 Mar 2012
Department
Course
Criminal Law
Class 5: The Police
February 1, 2012
History Of Policing
Pre-confederation
- mostly informal policing by community residence
First Police Officers
- Quebec City, mid 17th century
- Upper Canada, early 19th century
Varied duties
-Night watchman, tax collectors, building inspectors, bailiffs
Provincial Police Force
often set up in response to disorder resulting from gold strikes in 19th century
replaced by RCMP during 20th century
currently Ontario, Quebec and parts of Newfoundland have their own provincial police force
History of RCMP
North West Mounted police founded in 1873
- maintain law and order
- ensure orderly settlement in Prairies
- many problems: desertion, resignation and improper conduct
Replaced by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Police Today
About 60,00 police officers across Canada (believe that there are more)
- 1 for every 529 Canadians
- Lower than US, Australia and Great Britain
Largest cost item in justice system
- receives approximately 60% of the funding pie
-costs just over $300/per Canadian
1 out of 5 officers is a woman
Structure of Policing
Four levels
- Federal, provincial, municipal, and First Nations
- Also public transportation police (railway airport and transit)
Some municipalities have own forces
- Eg London, Toronto
- Others use provincial forces detachments or RCMP detachments
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police
organized by region and operations
governed by Royal Canadian Mounted Police act (1985)
enforce most federal statutes
- Controlled drugs and substances act
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-Securities act
-Canadian shipping act
- Student Loans Act
Do not normally enforce criminal code
Other Responsibilities of RCMP
Policing provinces and municipalities under contract
- 60% of RCMP are involved in contract policing
- Accountable only to RCMP
Peacekeeping
- Civilian Police Peacekeeping Operations
- Under Auspices of UN
- Technical advice, instruction of police force
Organization of RCMP
Accountability
- Only to RCMP, not to community
Nationwide recruiting and centralized training
- Regina: “depot”
Diverse policing environments
- Large and small
Frequent Transfers
-Declining
Non-Union
- Have a staff relations program
Broad mandate
- Wide range pf activities
Provincial Policing
Three Forces
- Ontario Provincial Police
- Surette du Quebec (SQ)
- Royal Newfoundland Constabulary (RNC)
- Other provinces use contract with RCMP
Responsibilities
- Police rural areas and areas outside municipalities
- Enforce provincial laws and Criminal Code
Regional Police
Amalgamated forces
- E.g. Peel Regional Police and the Halton Regional Police Force
- Provide police services to over half of Ontarians
Advantages
-Cheaper, more services
Disadvantages
-Too centralized, not in touch with community
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