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Lecture 11

LING 1100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: List Of House Types, Hypercorrection, Hot Sauce


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 1100
Professor
All
Lecture
11

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Linguistic resistance ion the border
from some of the variables, the st. Stephen participants are more likely to use the
Canadian standards then new Brunswick as a whole.
Variable Examples: Lever, mom,soft drink, evening meal, progress (st. Stephen
used more chadian english then american)
Language Variation
reginal variation
social variation: age, gender socio-economic class…
sociolinguistics is the study of language variation and also other things such as
language attitudes, bilingualism
There are regionional variation for all levels of linguistic structure (phonetics,
phonology, morphology, syntax)
Birth of Modern Soci-liguitics
Labov work in the 1960s in Martha vine year and NYC
Before that, non-regional variation was thought to be random
Two early Labov NYC studies
department store study
Hypothesis:
William Labov "the social stratification of ® in new york city department stores
Lobov hypothesis
if any two subgroups of NYC speakers are ranked in a scale of social
stratification, then they will be ranked in the same order by there differential use
of ®
® is a socio-liguistic variable with two variations:
rhotic and non rhotics in coda at the end of the symbol
often refereed to as "rhoticity"
Socio-linguistics variables
another variable is: ing
dancing vs. dancing
the socio-linguistic variation is an abstract entity which is realized as one or other
of its variants
a variable is presented in parentheses: (ing)
(ing) realized as ing, in,en
the in and the en variants are more likely to be found in informal speech style
than in formal speech styles.
Variable - abstract entity
Dependant and indépendant variables
the dependent variable is the variable you me sure, examine and try to predict. in
socio-liguistics its always the linguistic variable
the independent variable is a factor we use to try to predict the behaviour of the
dependant variable. Example in socio-linguistics: age, gender, social class…

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what are the dependent and independent variables in labovs department store
study?
Standard dialects
we can distinguish between standard and non standard dialects of a language
the designation standard or non standard has nothing to so with the linguistics of
the variety
standard : the preferred dialect the variety that had been chosen for some
reasons (usually political or social or economic) to serve as the norm
non-standard dialects are just as sophisticated, logical and rule governed as
standard varieties.
Hypothesis:
If your in upper class you are more likely to pronounce your r then those of a
lower class of NYC.
More specifically int he case of department stores with different levels of prestige:
sales people in the highest ranked store will have the highest value of r
sales people in middle ranked store will have intermediate value of r
sales people in the lowest ranked store will have the lowest value of r
Labov on Prestige
" the normal working of society have produces systematic difference between
certain institutions or people… these differentiated forms have been ranked…"
Overt prestige( nation wide- Steven harper) and covert prestige (within a group-
"cool" Kevin)
Stores
Saks, Macy's, S,Klein
location
advertising
prices
physical plant of the stores
Method:
asked where something was (4th floor), Labov went to the stores and lurking
around observing sales people, and would ask where are the women's shoes,
they would say 4th floor and get them to repeat it.
Result's:
the results showed actually stratification in the stores
Saks: 65% pronounced r
Macy's 50%
S.Klein 20%
Rapid and Anonymous survey
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the department store study is a rapid and anonymous survey
this study showed that rapid and anonymous survey can be a good source of
information on the socio-linguistic structure of a community
many rapid and anonymous survey have been conducted since, reaping valuable
results.
Disadvantage of the rapid anonymous dept store study
not tape recorded - transcriber bias?
request for repetition leads to a quite…
Advantages:
quick results
population easily available for rechecking.
The department store study only gives limited date
more could be potentially be learned from interviews
object of study: several variables, including r
interviews 157 adults and 58 children
representative of different ethnic groups.
Styles captured int eh interview
minimal pairs
hot sauce
Word List:
cat, sauce, window
Reading passage :
"… and what is the douce of your information, Joseph? She used her sweet and
sour tone of voice like ketchup mixed with tomato sauce … "
interview style
casual speech out side the interview
Eliciting Casual Speech
more formal
ideas of how they want to speak
how do you get people to relax
Labov asked questions that he hoped would result in excited stories
have you ever see a fight around here?
have you ever been in a situation where you thought you were going to die?
Danger of Death
the equivalent of danger of death story will be different in different communities
Toronto - do you think this is true? are you becoming more american?
Effects of social pressure
the upper middle class occupy a relatively secure social position
the lower middle class are aspiring a better their statues
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