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Lecture 15

LING 1100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Ancient Greek, Utsjoki, Jutes


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 1100
Professor
All
Lecture
15

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March 20, 2014- LING 1100
Enlgish – before Germanic people came to England speakers of celtic lived there.
Celtic: Indo- European bit not Germanic.
Jutes (from Jutland Denmark)
Saxons (Germany between Elbe and Rhine)
Angles (northern Germany) aslo frisians
Old Nlgihs
Beowulf
Comparative Method: There are written records from Germanic and old English. There
are many many languages for which there are no written records that can give us clues
about the history development and earlier forms
Through the comparative method and internal reconstruction we can learn a lot about
precursors to languages even without written records.
Language Death:
Less then 10% of langauges of the world today account for more then 90% of the
speakers. The dealth of a language occurs when it no longer has any speakers left using it.
Change vs. Extinction
Old English and Latin are dead languages.
However, OE and Latin are gone due to normal language change: they were not
abandoned for a competing language.
Dead languages include; Classic chinease, ehyptian, Sanskrit, old norse, latin, ancient
greek.
Ostlers empires of the word: a languae history of the world discusses and compares the
rise and fall of these langauges and others.
Extinct languages include; Manx1974, Catawba1996, Ubykh1992,
Latin: was the lingua franca in Europe (and beyond) for about 2 milliennia. The language
of the church, innovation, literature . Other big spken language families in Europe at the
time: Germanic and Celtic Gaelic
Frist Dealth: the western regions of the roman empire were split up by the Germanic
conquests; decline I mutual intelligibility. People started writing in the vernacular and
latin came to be seen as a separate lanague no longer the written form of the language
varieties.
Second Death: The invention of the printing press, Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz around
1440.
1450: Gutenberg published his version of the bible. Publications in lanaguges other then
latin, mass market of books spread of literacy and the last major work published in latin
in English was Newtons Philosophie naturalis principia mathematica 1687
Endagered langauges: at least 20% of the words languages are moribund. The majority of
todays languages are endangered. At least 60 native lanagagues were once spoken in
what is now Canada. 20-25 remain, only a few lanagauges are considered viable today:
Cree, Ojibwa, Dakota, Inuktitut.
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