LING 3505 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Karen People, Second Epistle Of John

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30 May 2016

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LING 3505 – February 29
Modality (may, must)
Necessity ; it must be, it has to be, it is necessarily so
Possibility ; it might be, it is possibly so
1 – John has to drive to Tucson:  (John drives to Tucson)
2 – Sara may be late:  (Sara will be late)
3 – Perhaps the canal is frozen:  (The canal is frozen)
4 – The flight is bound to be full:  (The flight is full)
Flavours of  and 
Ahmed may bring a friend to the party
“based on what we know” (Epistemic)
permitted/allowed, rules (Deontic)
Karen must be nice to Kelly
Context A: Kelly seems to really like and trust Karen (based on what we know)
Context B: Kelly is married to Karen’s brother but Karen doesn’t like Kelly (command,
But if you have:
The area of a circle is necessarily
Two plus two is necessarily four
Neither of these fit within Epistemic or Deontic modality.
So, we have a third modality to make up for logic, Logical: based on laws of logic
Lisa could have failed the midterm
Context A: “I don’t know; I haven’t checked” (Episttemic)
Context B: “…but she didn’t” (Logical)
Most examples, if given out of context, then there should be at least two interpretations
1 – Water has to be wet:  (water is wet), logical
1’ – (John is not in France, so) he must be outside France:  (John is outside France), epistemic
(or logical)
2 – John is certain to be fired:  (John will be fired), epistemic
3 – John may be tired:  (John is tired), epistemic
4 – Fiona had to read the book:  (Fiona read the book), deontic
5 – There can be mice in the kitchen:  (There are mice in the kitchen), deontic (or epistemic)
Logical Necessity: it is logically impossible for the sentence to be false
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