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PHIL2101 January 16, 2014.docx

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PHIL 2101
Gordon Davis

For Tuesday: •Aristotle's Nicomachen Ethics o Bk 1 up to Ch. 8 o Ie. Up to Bekker p #1099 o Can skip ch. 6 or try to see how he criticizes Plato there •**Aristotle in Past Masters -> go to volume 2 -> drop down and then go to Nicomachen Ethics Socrates •Idea that ethics did not come from social conventions •There were also the offshoot of skeptics -> especially from nature where they were originators from the science of nature o Another offshoot that adopted Socrates skepticism o Great inner peace to realize that they knew nothing •With philosophy: we think about arguments, claims and how we can or cannot conclude or accept/deny them •To appreciate these ideas, we have to know all the history and culture behind them that lead up to them o How do we understand the philosophy without knowing more about the culture o Idea of looking at a person's culture or their psyche -> who they are as a person • There are biologists who go back and look at figures and look to see if they fit a certain psychological mould  Some have argued that Socrates may have had Autism, argue that about Kant and Bentham as well o Was not trying to embody a Greek ideal (Socrates) o Many Greek guys would quote famous Greeks, such as Homer • Greek culture was persuasive •Thedo dialogue that mentions that materials are argued against o Describes Socrates on his death before he dies •Plato asks about abstract forms, thinks the most important forms are the abstracts that allow us to remember or understand other abstract concepts o And understand these forms •Aristotle argues, thinks they are not like forms, they are not quite so non-physical o Protagoras probably gets it better than Plato and Socrates and what the abstract form of the good is •Republic is famous for advacing poetry and rhetoric o In the Republic: Socrates and Plato argues that In an ideal society, poetry would be banned in that society o Protagoras argues against non-cognitivism -> seems to argue that if you want to be virtuous, you have to know certain things that will make you virtuous • To be virtuous you have to be constantly in it, have to be non cognative in it •Relativism: Theatetus -> idea of relativism -> often discussed in philosophy thought not many accept it, some of its difficulties are the ones it shows o Good to be aware, where did Socrates and Plato have their culture relate of it • Only sense of a moral judgement can be correct if it cohers with the moral judgement of its judge • Each one of us has our own values and we determine what is correct, that is an extreme view, but we can agree on certain things, we can't randomly kill an innocent person  Some things are beyond the pale  Share standards -> what happens when some other culture does not? • There are two possibilities at that point -> either one must not morally main baby or there is no non relative truth about it • Only truth that they can maim babies is that their standards permit it • Morals are relative to culture • Relatvist says that there is no actual thing that is objective  Ex. HR are the one thing that transcend different cultures  But there are some human rights that neither they nor we can tolerate violating and they also have a right to cultural autonomy • They have a right to it no matter what no matter where • Relativism says that every single moral claim or anything that we do is relative to its moral context -> There is NO objective truth • To rebut someone is to attempt to prove that they are wrong • Validity of moral claim and knowledge claims are relative to context • Any claim about what is right or correct is relative to a certain context  There are certain concepts of science that make them true  Things are only true within a particular context, nothing is true outside of it • One liners are not usually effective arguments
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