• Is it objectively true that different things have value?
o Canonically considered as sources of hedonic value that are sometimes
painful (and hence are poss, non-hedonic values):
i. Deep interpersonal relationships (eg. Love and friendship)
i. Personal autonomy (Not just a metaphys, sense, just that of being
able to make one's own decisions/priorities)
i. Accomplishments (achieving something, even when one might be
content with an effort or partial
i. Knowledge and understanding
o Could pain be part of the effect rather than the process?
o On basis of reasoning, science, or intellectual orientation, would that
mean she changes her view?
• Is it intrinsically painful?
There is a way of understanding that is detached
• There is a large question, the point is whether pain
can come from them rather than through them
• Is pain necessary bad? -> if you saved a child and hurt yourself
Or else we are rationalizing it
• Pain is always a subtraction to our ideas
Premodern thought rationalized by redefining what pain is
o Idea of liking pain -> brings us to desire
• Pleasure should be good if it is harmless
Utilitarians are harmless by keeping things in the future
• It is not that far from pleasure as happiness
• They assume that if they get things right,
they will spread happiness into society
If someone likes pain, we switch to a desire based theory
Good if and when they satisfy a person's desires
If someone enjoys being in pain, you could potentially
measure it by how often they get the opportunity to fulfill this desire
Could argue that the pain gives them pleasure
• Does it give them happiness-> it is a broad
concept, tinker with it so that pain constitutes happiness -> with
pleasure it would be a radical redefinition
• Is pleasure just things that fulfil our desire?
Measure of good things that make us more objective ->
advantage for Bentham, step forward, was to isolate something
that was physiological
• Pleasure is not whatever people want, it is the
quality of the sensation that you can measure in a brain scan, at
least you will be talking about something objective
In the relm of ethical theory now
• We have the type of right action (utilitarian; promote, maximize,
scope, can be precise about the relevant scope)
Then we measure the axiology (theory of value)
• What is it that any moral theory should aim about?
All of it is about axiology and various claims are true
regardless of whether we can maximize, violate rights, etc.
• In a way there is a theory