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PHIL 2103 September 19, 2013.docx

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PHIL 2103
Jay Drydyk

• Moral Guarantees -> Right to something, such as free speech means that it is wrong to deprive you or anybody of their freedom to speech • Does not guarantee free speech, it guarantees that depriving you of that free speech is wrong • Ex. Failed state where human rights are violated • It is wrong to deprive you of human rights when they are violated • Your human rights, if they are legitimate, have justifications o Not just something nice, it is something that happens early in the life of every human right o There is something about this specific right that no one should be deprived of it • Ethical justification: If asserting human right is like saying depriving anyone of something is wrong, wrongness is a moral property • How do you get conclusions about wrongness unless you start with ideas of what is right and wrong? • Need arguments to include some sort of ethical proponent or ideal or principal • Need some part of prescriptive (Statement that says how the world should be) o Need both prescriptive and descriptive to justify a human right • It is possible for them to be bad or to fail • There are rules that apply to ethical arguments o There is a golden and silver rules • This is where we will cause unnecessary harm • There are a scripter of requirements for human rights o Premises should be unproblematic to accent, not just likely o Ex. Type of discrimination: Rights of gays and lesbians not to be discriminated against • Human rights protect against many things • It is unproblematic Prudential arguments • Can use them to rally around human rights, hard to justify human rights • There is no morality or ethics, values there • Mobilize on he basis of what they think is good for them • Ethical theory that concerns people with their goods and well being o Utilitarianism • Consider it for a whole group: Something, doing X would be best for you • Doing X would be best for you, all things considered. o So, • Do X! • Ex. Getting flu shots: good for all of us: so do it! • If we all respected and protected free speech, we should do it HR APPLICATION: • Recognizing and implementing a HR to X would be best for all of us, all things considered (=Fundamental interest) • Let's all recognize and implement a HR to X Therefore, • There is HR to X There is a logial gap: • The premise is that we are doing something that is the best for us • But then we conclude saying that it's wrong for anyone to be deprived of a capability to X • Not a good argument • Need for something else: a principal and moral value to connect the two things: premise and conclusion • The premise has some sort of statement of what is right or wrong rather than what is best for us Moral statements: Three uses of language Assertive or descriptive • Saying what is the case; expressing belief • Direction of fit: making our ideas match the world • Expressing your words the way you think it is • Statements are directions of fit • Descriptions have to match the world Directive: • Giving direct
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