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PHIL 2103 (58)
Jay Drydyk (53)
Lecture 4

PHIL 2102 Week 4 Class 1.docx

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PHIL 2103
Jay Drydyk

Week 4 Class 1 Essay: • We’re studying human rights in the context of public reason – ‘To be is to be justified…’ • The best way to understand public reason is to engage in it. • I want you to start thinking about strengths & weaknesses of arguments AND making your own arguments. • Remember Kant’s motto for the Enlightenment: Think for yourself! • Is the premise true? In discussing the premise, bring as many of the following on your side as you can, and defend yourself against the rest • Does the premise support the conclusion? Why or why not? o The Premise- Insofar as it is ethically justified, the right to life is a positive right o Conclusion - Therefore, it is not a negative right. o Use:  John Locke  J.S. Mill (or utilitarianism in general)  John Hospers  Henry Shue • You may also introduce further arguments in support of your position o Defend yourself against further objections • Easy on the intro, only explain understanding of the question and state explanation • Defend objections, add own reasons • Draw conclusions • Sum up explanations o Define clear winner • Each point online complete in 1 complete sentence o Should have tought through 80% of essay by completetion of online work o 1500-2500 • Outline – clearly answer questions online for outline • No need for citation in outline Positive vs negative rights • A right is a negative if: o Enjoyment of it is meant to require noninterference by others  Through social protection and enforcement may require interference by government  What is protects is a negative freedom ( = freedom from interference is a liberty) o Government may have to step in to protect often • A right is positive is o Enjoyment of it is meant t require more than noninterference; something has to be provided or made available to people who need or lack it’s what is protected is a positive freedom or a capability o Typically regarded as positive rights  Right to education  Right to fair trial Henry Shue • To call a right basic means that it is a necessary condition for enjoying (=having the use an benefits of) any other rights • Protecting the use and enjoyment of the other rights entails protecting the basic right as wel
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