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Lecture 4

PHIL 2102 Week 4 Class 2.docx
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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 2103
Professor
Jay Drydyk
Semester
Fall

Description
Week 4 Class 2: Basic Rights Essay: Criticism – premise and how premise leads to conclusion Pet Peeves: • Missing apostrophes • Argument spelt arguement • Problems with utilitarianism: • Conflict with other principles o Theories can conflict with accepted norms o • Unjust consequences • The right thing to do is what maximizes well being When Moral Premises Should not be Applied: • When the application involves following a rule that can’t be followed by all. o "It's best for me to steal your book, so that’s exactly what I’m going to do." o Not treating others as persons, agents o When "justice" means "just us" o Lack of universalizability o Violates “golden rule” • When the application brings about unequal avoidable harm. o Preferring own liberty over survival of others o Neglect: allowing harm by inaction o Lack of moral concern o Violates principle of non-maleficence(“silver rule”) o Frequent problem in arguments against HR Henry Shue - Basic Rights • To call a right "basic" means that it is a necessary condition for enjoying (=having the use & benefits of) any other rights. • Protecting the use and enjoyment of the other rights entails protecting the basic right as well • Examples o Life, liberty, security of person? BASIC o Not to be held in slavery? BASIC o Fair trial? NOT BASIC o Non-discrimination? BASIC o Subsistence (meeting needs for life & health)? BASIC o Property (personal possessions)? BASIC o Property (including all assets)? NOT BASIC o Voting? NOT BASIC • Security as a basic right o No one can fully enjoy any right … if someone can credibly threaten him or her with murder, rape, beating, etc. when one tries to enjoy the right. o Such threats to physical security are among the most serious and … widespread hindrances to the enjoyment of any right. o In the absence of physical security people are unable to use any other rights … without being liable to encounter many of the worst dangers …. o [Therefore] Absence of a r
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