Week 9 Day 2
UN Millennium Development Goals
• Eradicate extreme poverty.
• Universal primary education.
• Gender equality (in education).
• Reduce child mortality.
• Improve maternal health.
• Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria,
and other diseases.
• Environmental sustainability.
• Global partnership for development.
Are human rights irrelevant to developing countries?
• No, as long as
o Western biases are removed
o Human rights are linked properly with development
• Question remaining:
o Can this be accomplished by the Right to Development?
Right to Development = a Right to what?
• From the Pre-amble:
o … a comprehensive economic, social, cultural and political process …
o … which aims at the constant improvement of the well-being …
o … of the entire population …
o … on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation …
o … and in fair distribution of benefits …
• Article 1 o … development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be
fully realized …
o … implies full realization of the right of peoples to self-determination …
• Article 6
o As a complement to the efforts of the developing countries, effective international
cooperation is essential in providing these countries with appropriate means
• Article 8
o Effective measures should be undertaken to ensure that women have an active
role in the development process
o Appropriate economic and social reforms should be carried out with a view to
eradicating all social injustices
What does R2D respect, protect, ensure, promote?
• Improvement in Well-being
o Health, life expectancy
o Incomes, standards of living
o Human development index
Per capita income
Indicators of health and life expectancy
Literacy rates, rates of participation in schooling
• Equitably distributed
o Reduce social inequalities
• With free, active participation of people
o Democratic and accountable
o Stakeholders control
• Improved enjoyment of other HR • Collective self-determination of the people as a country or nationality
• Irrelevant to struggle for existence
o Ake: Western HR privilege civil/politicalrights
Appeal to well-fed people seeking self-fulfillment
People struggling for existence have little time for reflection or free
o R2D makes basic needs a priority
• Conditions for realizing HR are ignored
o Ake: Those few who can have resources to exercise rights don’t need them; their
power secures them.
o Ake: Those who lack resources aren’t helped by rights; their powerless dooms
o R2D aims to empower poor people.
o R2D aims to empower poor peoples.
• Development needs HR
o Ake: A people develops itself only if people are the end of development.
o Ake: Requires democracy + use of human rights.
o R2D aims to empower people
o Individually, in participatory processes
o As a people, w/ democratic decision-making
o R2D aims for improved enjoyment of all HR.