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PHIL 2102 Week 9 Class 2.docx

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PHIL 2103
Jay Drydyk

Week 9 Day 2 UN Millennium Development Goals • Eradicate extreme poverty. • Universal primary education. • Gender equality (in education). • Reduce child mortality. • Improve maternal health. • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. • Environmental sustainability. • Global partnership for development. Are human rights irrelevant to developing countries? • No, as long as o Western biases are removed o Human rights are linked properly with development • Question remaining: o Can this be accomplished by the Right to Development? Right to Development = a Right to what? • From the Pre-amble: o … a comprehensive economic, social, cultural and political process … o … which aims at the constant improvement of the well-being … o … of the entire population … o … on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation … o … and in fair distribution of benefits … • Article 1 o … development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized … o … implies full realization of the right of peoples to self-determination … • Article 6 o As a complement to the efforts of the developing countries, effective international cooperation is essential in providing these countries with appropriate means • Article 8 o Effective measures should be undertaken to ensure that women have an active role in the development process o Appropriate economic and social reforms should be carried out with a view to eradicating all social injustices What does R2D respect, protect, ensure, promote? • Improvement in Well-being o Health, life expectancy o Education o Incomes, standards of living o Human development index  Per capita income  Indicators of health and life expectancy  Maternal health  Literacy rates, rates of participation in schooling • Equitably distributed o Reduce social inequalities • With free, active participation of people o Democratic and accountable o Stakeholders control • Improved enjoyment of other HR • Collective self-determination of the people as a country or nationality Ake’s Challenge • Irrelevant to struggle for existence o Ake: Western HR privilege civil/politicalrights  Appeal to well-fed people seeking self-fulfillment  People struggling for existence have little time for reflection or free speech o R2D makes basic needs a priority • Conditions for realizing HR are ignored o Ake: Those few who can have resources to exercise rights don’t need them; their power secures them. o Ake: Those who lack resources aren’t helped by rights; their powerless dooms them. o R2D aims to empower poor people. o R2D aims to empower poor peoples. • Development needs HR o Ake: A people develops itself only if people are the end of development. o Ake: Requires democracy + use of human rights. o R2D aims to empower people o Individually, in participatory processes o As a people, w/ democratic decision-making o R2D aims for improved enjoyment of all HR.
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