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PHIL 2102 Week 11 Class 2.docx

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PHIL 2103
Jay Drydyk

Week 11 Day 2 The Final Exam • Imagine that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is being redrafted, and you have been chosen to assist a commission that is studying ethical justifications both for rights already recognized in international declarations and for rights that have not yet received such recognition. • The right that you must discuss will be announced on December 5. • Your assignment is to discuss a full range of moral arguments for and against the claim that this is a social protection that everyone ought to have. • Which side is supported by the stronger arguments? • Choose a right to work with. I suggest: the right to an adequate standard of living. • Identify the arguments that work for it and against its recognition. • Have a thought about: • For each argument, is there an objection? • Can it be defended against that objection? • Remember: three types of objection: o That a premise is not plausible o That the premises do not give strong/valid support for the conclusion o That the conclusion has unacceptable consequences • At the end of the day, which side wins? Which arguments (pro or con) are stronger? • Arguments: o o Utilitarian o Social contract (generic) o Libertarian o Social contract (Locke) o Basic rights o Social contract (Rawls) o Locke’s moral law I o Cranston: only CP, not SEC rights are HR  “God’s property”) o Ake: irrelevance o Locke’s moral law II o Donnelly vs. right to  Common human development nature o Arguments vs. women’s  Not meant to be rights, answered by Bunch subordinated o Triviality o Kant: Universal law o Privacy o Kant: Means/Ends o Group-specific o Aristotle: natural slavery o Inevitability o Various anti-slavery: o Self-defeating (Charlesworth) o Paine HR = men’s rights o Forten o Relativism against HR o Douglass o Akan values o Condorcet o Islamic values o Wollstonecraft o Asian values vs. HR o Argument from oppression o Capability approach (generic) o Bentham: HR are “nonsense on stilts” Islam 101 • Qur’an o Religious book o From God to prophet Muhammad • Mecca o Saudi Arabia o Where the prophet was born and received the first verses • Medinah o Followers forced out of mecca, this is where they went o Less radical • Sunnah o What Mohammad did according to hadith • Shari’ah o Islamic law further interpretation from scholars • Umma o Worldwide community of Muslims • Talks more about equality o Charity encouraged Core Practices of Islam • Five Pillars o Testimony of faith o Prayer (5 times daily) o Almsgiving – traditionally  10-20% of farm produce  2.5% of savings for the rich o Fasting during Ramadan o Pilgrimage to mecca o 6 pillar – jihad  Personal struggle More about Islamic Faith • Why has Islam been adopted by so many people outside its Arab origins? • An egalitarian, non-discriminatory message • Reformist morality, opposing excess • If Islam is egalitarian, why does it disadvantage women in marriage, inheritance, legal status? • What is now discriminatory was a reform 1500 years ago, compared to how things were then. Basing Human Rights on Muslim Values • Universal Islamic Declaration Of Human Rights (1981) • Created by experts in Islamic law • Sponsored by Islamic council of Europe • Not a treaty or declaration of states • What values are foundational? • What kinds of HR are supported? • Inconsistencies? Incompleteness? (Recall I & I are common in all traditions. It’s not Eurocentric to look for them!) o Rights to develop, free of fear, oppression, exploitation, deprivation o Eliminate oppression and injustice o Confer dignity and honor • Rights listed: o o Right to life o Right of privacy o
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