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Science - Conjectures and Refutations.docx

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PHIL 2301
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Science Conjectures and RefutationsKarl PopperPopper wants to distinguish the difference between science and pseudoscienceoScience is distinguished from pseudoscience or from metaphysics by its empirical method which is essentially inductive processing from observation or experiment The latter method may be exemplified by astrology with its stupendous mass of empirical evidence based on observation on horoscopes and biographics Popper focuses on four main theories Einsteins theory of relativity most important Marxs theory of history Freuds psychoanalysis and Alfred Adlers socalled individual psychology oThese theories appeared to be able to explain practically everything that happened within the fields to which they referred The study of any of them seemed to have the effect of an intellectual conversion or revelation opening your eyes to a new truth hidden from those not yet initiated 1It is easy to obtain confirmations or verifications for nearly every theoryif we look for confirmations2Confirmations should count only if they are the result of risky predictions that is to say if unenlightened by the theory in question we should have expected an event wh
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