Lecture No. 8 Ideologies Friday, March 8 , 2013
What is an ideology?
Ideology in world politics is the politics beyond the state/institutions. Structural ideology is the
dissimulation of “real” circumstances. Religion is the opium of the people according to Marx. Religion
masks the real circumstances of society by suggesting of our sources of happiness and misery comes
from a high power. Instrumental ideology is the articulation of ideas to pursue a goal. The ruling class
formulates ideas to expand and maintain power. Ideology is defined as a system of ideas about existing
order, visiting for future order, and how to move from to the latter. The key features of ideology are
porous boundaries, action-oriented, rationalizing/universalizing, legitimizing, and naturalizing.
Liberalism has origins in social contract theory (Hobbes, and Locke), and political economy (Smith). Main
variants are classical liberalism, social liberalism, and neo – liberalism. Main tenets/commitments are
(negative) liberty (freedom from …), equality (before the law; of opportunity), individualism (incl.
capacity for rational choices), and tolerance. Corollaries of liberal tenets for politics are human rights of
individuals, limited government, regulation through markets, and a weak sense of community.
Liberalism has constantly evolved throughout history from classical liberalism (19 cent.) to social
liberalism (late 19 c. to 1970s) to neoliberalism (since 1980s). An example of neo-liberal “shock
therapy” began in Chicago to Chile (1973), post-communist Poland and Russia (1989-), post-apartheid
South Africa (1993-), post-invasion Iraq (2003-), and post-tsunami Asia (2005-). “Take away”: non-state
and state dimensions of spreading ideology, and neoliberalism and coercion/authoritarianism.
Socialism has origins in the Industrial Revolution (early 19 c.) + Marx. Multiple variants are “utopian,”
Marxist, Leninist, democratic, and etc. Main tenets are human nature is malleable, equality
(substantive/of outcomes), freedom (self-realization through labor), and the possibility of cooperation
and community. Socialism
throughout history started from
transnational social movement (First