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Lecture No. 8 Ideologies.docx

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Political Science
PSCI 1100
Hans Martin Jaeger

th Lecture No. 8 Ideologies Friday, March 8 , 2013 What is an ideology? Ideology in world politics is the politics beyond the state/institutions. Structural ideology is the dissimulation of “real” circumstances. Religion is the opium of the people according to Marx. Religion masks the real circumstances of society by suggesting of our sources of happiness and misery comes from a high power. Instrumental ideology is the articulation of ideas to pursue a goal. The ruling class formulates ideas to expand and maintain power. Ideology is defined as a system of ideas about existing order, visiting for future order, and how to move from to the latter. The key features of ideology are porous boundaries, action-oriented, rationalizing/universalizing, legitimizing, and naturalizing. Modern Ideologies Liberalism has origins in social contract theory (Hobbes, and Locke), and political economy (Smith). Main variants are classical liberalism, social liberalism, and neo – liberalism. Main tenets/commitments are (negative) liberty (freedom from …), equality (before the law; of opportunity), individualism (incl. capacity for rational choices), and tolerance. Corollaries of liberal tenets for politics are human rights of individuals, limited government, regulation through markets, and a weak sense of community. th Liberalism has constantly evolved throughout history from classical liberalism (19 cent.) to social liberalism (late 19 c. to 1970s) to neoliberalism (since 1980s). An example of neo-liberal “shock therapy” began in Chicago to Chile (1973), post-communist Poland and Russia (1989-), post-apartheid South Africa (1993-), post-invasion Iraq (2003-), and post-tsunami Asia (2005-). “Take away”: non-state and state dimensions of spreading ideology, and neoliberalism and coercion/authoritarianism. Socialism has origins in the Industrial Revolution (early 19 c.) + Marx. Multiple variants are “utopian,” Marxist, Leninist, democratic, and etc. Main tenets are human nature is malleable, equality (substantive/of outcomes), freedom (self-realization through labor), and the possibility of cooperation and community. Socialism throughout history started from transnational social movement (First Int’l) to
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