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Political Science
PSCI 1100
Hans Martin Jaeger

POLITICS BEYOND THE STATE CIVIL SOCIETY (CS) IN POLITICAL THEORY: • CS = political community (Aristotle) 17 -18 cent. (social contract theory): CS = the state • CS/the state vs. state of nature (Hobbes, Locke), CS essentially the same as the state Late 18 -19 cent.: CS vs. the state • CS = market + corporations (+ admin.) (Hegel) (a) CS = commercial society (Scottish Enlightenment); (global) sphere of production and exchange (Marx). Ferguson, Smith (Scottish Enlightenment)- commercial society has some neg. effects on people. Marx- CS was global from the beginning, (b) CS = voluntary associations (Tocqueville). 19 cent. Important element of US democracy. Found expression in indiv. That will pursue econ/moral interst on their own. th 20 cent.: CS vs. market and state • CS = bourgeois institutions and working class assoc. (i.e. basis of class hegemony/governance and counterhegemony/resistance) (Gramsci). Dominance and power of capitalist class over working class, and also the realm of possibility to overthrow the working class. CONTEMPORARY UNDERSTANDING OF (GLOBAL) CS: nongovernmental sphere of communication and association outside and/or in opposition to states and markets (and international gvt’l organizations): • not necessarily state-bound → transnat’l/global CS • counterweight to state and corporate power • creates publicity and accountability • generates (global) public opinion • leads to democratization of (world) politics CS AND TRANSNATIONAL CS: HISTORY: • CS, 19 cent. revolutions, and expansion of rights. Human and political rights • 19 cent. transnational CS: abolitionist, peace, workers’, and women’s movements • Early 20 c. CS: promoter of the League of Nations. • CS and the founding of the UN. NGOs should ensure that human rights made it into the UN charter • Steady growth of NGOs since WWII. More involved in interacting with Inter gvnt organization • Since 1960s: (transnat’l) anti-apartheid, anti-(viet.)war, environm’tal, human rights, and women’s movem’ts. Western CS movements. Viet. War was one of the biggest movements. • 1970s-80s: “CS” overthrows authoritarian regimes in Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe. • 1990s: amplification of CS to global CS (esp. UN world conferences) THREE MODELS OF TRANSNATIONAL CS B/W GOVERNANCE AND RESISTANCE: 1. Pluralist, neocorporatist, and neoliberal CS: CS as partner in governance (a) Pluralist CS: interest groups as influences on governmental policy-making (e.g. agricultural or business interests influencing legislation) (b) Neocorporatist CS: esp. tripartite collective decision-making btw government, capital, and labour. Cooperative relationship b/w capital labour and gvnt. The state plays a more active role than in Pluralist. States will try to actively solve state policies (c) Neoliberal CS: • “contracting-out” of public services (e.g. state or IGO reliance on NGOs in development and humanitarian emergencies). Idea that the state needs to be less involved, more space for individuals. NGOs receive funding from states- development assistance is then done by NGOs on behalf of IGO/NGO • public-private(-private) partnerships (e.g. Kimberley Process [diamond mining profits were used to fund war lords and gun production; certifies diamonds that use non blood diamonds. Tries to get corps to support human rights, and thus get a ‘global compact’ logo- ethical coprotation]; UN Global Compact). Corporations and NGOs. Neoliberal reality of GSC includes corps as a CS → (a)-(c): quasi
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