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PSCI 2102 February 28, 2013.doc

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Carleton University
Political Science
PSCI 2101
Andrea Chandler

February 28, 2013 India 1. Caste 2. Democracy and rule of law - British Raj, Non violent struggle - story, civic society 3. Import substitution Industrialization 4. Structural adjustment to neoliberalism 5. Corruption and eroding power of congress Mexico - "Poor Mexico: So far from God and so close to the US" - Porfirio Diaz Pre-Columbian History • Mexico was the basin of the great civilization of the Americas • With the domestication of corn, flourishing urban cultures developed some 3000 years ago • Typically dominated by despotic personal leaders known in Spanish as caciques who had near divine status • By 1400 Mexico city under the name of Tenochtitlan New Spain • By 1522, the Spanish under the adventurer Cortez defeated the Aztecs and established the Colony of New Spain • Had power of guns, germs and steel • The indigenous population was decimated by the diseases the Spanish carried such as small pox, tuberculosis and influenza • The population of 25 million was reduced to 1 million within a century • Was also because the Aztecs relied on sophisticated system of irrigation and Spaniards turned uncultivated land into large beef producing estates enslaving local population • Enslaved in production of metals such as silver Spanish Colonialism • New Spain was administered by officials sent out from Spain known as peninsulas, headed by the Viceroy in Mexico city • Settler colonists and their descendants known as criollos dominated the indigenous population • The inquisition of Spain also imported racism in the form of the notions of limpiezza de sangre or "purity of blood" • Racial hierarchy with indigenous people at the bottom • Only limited self-government existed at municipal level • Lasted about 3-4 centuries • Was little education for self government throughout the long period of Spanish rule, was authoritarian The economy of New Spain • Dominated by the mining interests of extracting silver and the establishment of large estates or latifundia • Farmers engaged in extensive ranching not the intensive irrigated agriculture of the pre- Colombian period Independence • Brought in the start of 19th century • The ideas of the American and French revolution. Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian Peninsula stimulated the fight for independence • In New Spain "Mexico", Miguel Hidalgo, a Priest led a rebellion in 1810 against the Peninsulares established a Republic, achieving independence in 1821 • Defeated because army was not good enough and because they got yellow fever • Had two centuries of unstable government • Texas was a part of New Spain, English speaking Americans declared independence • Americans invaded the North of Mexico because they owed them money Perennial instability • Society was highly stratified between a criollo elite, mestiso peons and indigenous peoples with no history of self government • Political power developed to military leaders or Caudillos such as Santa Ana • The Monroe Doctrine initiated the history of US (North American) Intervention • In 1847 Mexico loses half its territory to the US • For first time in American history, a Mexican lead a liberal revolution • Mexican identity -> mestiso state, overcame racist hierarchy of the past and embraced their indigenous identity, aztec past, etc. • Reconciled themselves to a mixed identity • The reform does not perm. Change the equation of forces, there was great social inequality in Mexico, huge population of illiterate mestiso and indigenous people • Reform and Reaction • 1857 great liberal reform, la reforma led by liberal leader of Indian blood, Benito Juarez • Conservative forces allied with French invasion ,resisted in a war lasting to 1866 • In 1876 a general in the War against the French, Porfio Diaz becomes president The Porfiriato 1876-1910 • Diaz maintains power by carrot and stick pan o pallo • Modernizes by opening Mexico to foreign investment • 90% of land; railways and mining fall into foreign hands • Had grand European styles • Had accumulation of great amounts of wealth while the mass of people were left in poverty • Much of wealth was given to foreign hands • In 1910, Diaz, over 80, wants to run for re-election • 1910-1920, Mexico undertakes one of the first of the great revolitions The Mexican Revolution 1910-1920 • In 1910 Diaz attempts re-election • Opposition coalesces, civil war ensues • Indigenous leader Emiliano Zapata from Oaxaca calls for land and liberty (tierra y libertad) • More conservative urban leaders want constitutional reform (no re-election) • Bandit leader Pancho Villa joins in north • 1 million deaths • Revolutionary period was chaotic, in South, had Zapata and in the North was Villa who went in and out of American territory • In 1920 they settled down and wrote a new constitution The Institutionalized Revolution • Power devolves to an oligarchy • Party of the National Revolution formed 1929 to stabilize power • Lazaro Cardenas (president 1934-1940) • Nationalizes oil industry 1938 • Land reform to Ejido • Reorganizes PNR -> PRM later -> PRI • Created a political party that would bring together both the oligarchs who are part of the revolution and a strong social movement leading into it • Nationalizes oil industry, manages to finally realize the promise of the land of freedom to peasants The part of the Institutionalized Revolution and Corporatism • Sectors o Labour- Confederacion de Trabajores de Mexico (CTM) o Rural (Ejido) Confederacion Natcional Campesina (CNC) o Middle class "Popular Sector" Confederacion Nacional de Organizacion Populares (CNOP) o Corporatism: A system of governance where the executive interacts directly with vertically organized interests • Interest groups dominate over these systems, are organized vertically rather than being in competition with each other Clientelism • PRI encouraged patron-client relations where local bosses caciques dispensed patronage favours in return for support • Fragmented popular demands and channelled it into compartments dealt with by the executive • Organized communities and lobbied saying they needed to get water pipes, sewage, etc. in • Government is organized by the PRI, so if they wanted pipes, etc. They would have to vote for the PRI • PRI consistently won every election for close to 60 years • Combination of corporatism and clientelism • Corporatism through domination of large interest groups Executive Centralism • Under PRI Mexico had executive centered government under the president • Under the constitution, there was no re-election and could only serve one term • Mexico
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