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PSCI 2102 January 24, 2013.doc

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Political Science
PSCI 2101
Andrea Chandler

Janurary 24, 2012 The Emergence of the Development Problem • In the post WWII era, decolonization gave rise to the independence of many new nations • British fell into Capitalism 1. These ex-colonial states were less industrialized and were backward in comparison with the developed colonizers 2. The emergence of the Cold War gave international urgency to the question of what path these states would take 3. The successful reconstruction of Western Europe through the Marshall Plan fed optimism about the possibilities of public policies aimed at achieving economic growth • Roosevelt wanted to get rid of colonization, not because of human rights, but because he felt that it was a system of imperial preferences of where the various colonial regimes had erected tariff barriers to each other, leading to the great depression • Main reason to have decolonization was for free trade • Another reason was that the Soviet Union (Lenin) wanted to weaken imperialism -> two most powerful countries in the world agreeing that in the post world periods, the colonies would be ended • Growing movement in favour of independence • During WWII, in Asia, the white colonial regimes had been defeated by a non white regime (namely Japan) • This ended the myth of white superiority • Got a process which was in part mandated by the UN and supported by Soviet Union and United States • Lead to the colonial powers gaining independence • Beginning of the cold war • If you had been a colony before and suffered from categorical inequality, too bad • During WWII, there was utter destruction, yet in the 15-20 years that followed WWII, after WWI, European economies and Japan recovered relatively quickly • Institutions like the WTO responsible for reconstructing countries damaged by WWII. Economic policies possible in fact even with some engineering • "Modernization theory" • How do people become modernized? • Dichotomy between tradition and modernity • Tradition means behaving and acting in rather stereotyped way • Modernity is dynamic and ever-changing, requiring a situation increasing social equality • Europe has the renaissance, enlightenment • Countries of Western world have to break with tradition as well ad increase individualism • Move away from the authority of religion to the authority of reason Modernization theory • The modernization theorists extrapolated from the experience of the development of Europe and sought to project this on the rest of the world • They saw development as the movement from traditional society to modern society of social mobility and an increased division of labour through industrialization and urbanization • The problem was to abandon "tradition" and adopt a modern ethic of achievement and change • Individualism, markets and democracy would be seen as the hallmarks of modernity • In this context, the idea is that modernization would involve a number of processes, social, economic and political • Social is process of going from one to another Political Development • Modernization theorists believed that development was a process that emerged over several linked dimensions: social; economic; political • Political development meant the emergence of modern political structures such as bureaucracies, mass political parties and elections • It was assumed that these institutions would evolve alongside economic and social change • While many social scientists conceded this process could be violent, in the context of the Cold War Western policy makers had a distinct aversion to revolutionary change • Many places in West Europe become bureaucracies • The only problem is making sure that these newly independent states had the right kind of policies that bring upon growth • Development of economics was a development of the soviet desire • Marx had predicted that capitalism would be overthrown in the advanced industrialized countries, but the first socialist state did not end up being advanced, it ended up being one of the most backward states They had to figure out how they could have the working class without industry • 1929 -> They had to industrialize from the top down • Before WWII, there was no such field as economics • After WWII, there was a global economic imperative, figuring out how to make things happen • World Bank, ideas on how to build up their economics Development and "Dependency" the Latin American Experience • Latin American states had gained independence in the 19th century • These countries had found themselves locked into patterns of trade established in the colonial era exporting primary products and importing manufactures • In the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAS) a group of Latin American economists and sociologists developed the dependency thesis • Yet Latin America did not have the same standard of living as the USA and was not always democratic • There was a group of intellectuals who actually were recruited as part of the development process itself • Why is it that independence didn't make us wealthy, happy and free? • Went back to the talk about trade, looked at pattern of trade between Latin America and the advance of the colonies • Terms of Trade, free trade tells you you're better of when you trade • When talking about the colonies, the countries were not industrialized in the first place, could only trade primary products -> stuff you pull out or grow from the ground that does not have a lot of processing and value added to it • Product cycles: Producing primary, the more you produce, the more the price goes down, but industrialized countries are selling you fully processed items • As they keep inventing new products, how many bushels of wheat does it take to buy an iPhone? • Andre Gunder-Frank, said that the solution
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