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PSCI 2102 January 10, 2013.doc

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Carleton University
Political Science
PSCI 2101
Andrea Chandler

Specialize in three of the six countries covered: China, India, Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria and Iran [email protected] Phone extension: 1426 Office LA: C662 W: 2:30 - 4:30 T: 9:30-11:30 1:30-4:30 The study of different "political systems" A method of studying politics by comparing institutions, policy processes and political outcomes in different settings in time and space Politics is the process of authoritative decision making Politics is about power, who has it, where it comes from and what they do with it Politics is the process of authoritative decision making -> What is authority? -> What is authoritative decision making? Politics is about power, who has it, what do they do with it? Power is when someone can do something regardless of what another person thinks of them Development in the world we live in : Living in a world that is both sharply divided and intensely dynamic and changing Between 1960 and 1990 the gap between rich and poor kept increasing: in fact, doubled. • There was a graph that was developed because one part of the world grew faster than the other • What the consequence for other side was when the West grew by so much • The rest of the world had to take the consequences of the West regardless of what the rest of the world thought about the West • How does the rest of the world catch up? • A lot of political economy The origins of the problem with the gap between the rich and the poor: • Beginning of the 19th century, there was no underdevelopment as such back then the ratio of per capita income in the richest country (Britain) to the powers was less than 10 • Since the 17th century, the West began growing at exponential rates, bringing about a growing income gap • China and India were never really that much further behind The movement from subsistence to growth • Through most of human history, people consumed at the level of subsistence • Cultural and technological improvements only increased population and population densities • Produced wealth for some but average living standards and life expectancies barely improved Capitalism and Modernity • The accidental emergence of capitalism and modernity between 16th and 19th century represented a singular and dramatic departure in Europe and the West • Self-sustaining growth became a norm, and Europe (and its North American offshoot) came to dominate the world • Jared Diamond's Guns Germs and Steel -> Asian is East/West (Meant that crops that were grown in Asian could be introduced easily in other parts of Asia, they could be introduced well, same climate) while America is North/South (takes much longer to grow, could take thousands of years because of climate change • More domesticated animals in Eurasia, such a large land mass that they could easily domesticate an animal in another part of Asia • Accidents of history -> not that one group of people are better than the others • Agriculture in the tropic South is extremely difficult - > because it rains all the time • Northwest of Europe happens to have reliable climate • Feudalism • Consists of a conflict between church and state • Development of a large urban class • Sustainable empire -> in China, not same drive as city states in Europe • Spanish and Portuguese explorers were religious fanatics : one of the reasons they were exploring was because they were at a war with the Muslims Key Factors: • Technology and knowledge as a factor of production • Money in the form of mobile capital that could be invested in land, labour and physical resources • A legal system that guaranteed the returns of private ownership • Trade, espec
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