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PSCI 2102 March 28, 2013.doc

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Political Science
PSCI 2101
Andrea Chandler

March 28, 2013 SOUTH AFRICA History • South Africa home to some of the oldest human communities - the San people • Pastoral Bantu speaking peoples came in from north about a thousand years ago • Built trading kingdom centered at Mapungubwe where Chinese artefacts have been found • Portuguese round Cape of Good Hope in 1497 • Dutch East India Company founded companies Dutch and British Colonization • Dutch build settler colony using slave labour • Settlers made up of Dutch and French Huguenots who fled religious persecution • Settlers come into conflict with neighbouring Xhosa peoples of Eastern Cape • British take over colony at beginning of the 19th C • Fight war with great Zulu ruler Shaka • Dutch speaking Afrikaans, some tried to break away from British colony and move north in the first 1/3d of the 9th cenutry Boer Separatism (Afrikaaner Dutch speaking farmers) • Dutch speaking(Africaans) farmers flee colonial rule in great Trek 1835 seeking independence and racial hierarchy • Boers establish two independent states in Transvaal and the Orange Free State Mining and Colonial wars • Diamonds discovered in 1850's • Gold discovered in Transvaal leads Rhodes in the Cape Colony to try and establish control over Boer states • 1899 Boer war fought to subdue Boes and bring them into British Empire (Boer war) • Boers fight guerrilla war but no match for modern British weapons and army • Canadians fought in the Boer war on behalf of the British Empire • Was a very brutal war, the British caged them, invented the concentration camp in order to control the Boers • Quite of a few Africaaners died, not proper sanitation, people died from disease • The British having machine guns and superior forces defeated the Boers • Many African soldiers also helped fight for Britain, hopefully if Britain won, non racism would happen • In 1910, Union of South Africa where British adopted a racial policy, restricting the franchise of the Black Africans and the Asians • Dividing line in society, further exasperated Union of South Africa • In 1910, South Africa achieves Dominion Status • Franchise restricted on racial basis • 67% of population black African 9 'coloured' and 2.5% Asian had rights curtailed • In 1912, African National Congress founded to fight racial discrimination • 1913 Land act sought to restrict land tenure and privilege Whites with 90% of the land Afrikaner Nationalist Party and Apartheid • In 1948 the Afrikaner Nationalist Party wins power • Seeks to advance rights of Afrikaans speaking Whites and institute 'separate development' of races • Past laws restrict residency • Political rights of non whites suppressed • 1955 ANC act suppresses Black Africans Political Economy of Apartheid • National Party sought to advance Afrikaners economically through state investment • Pass laws that residential segregation used to reduce black Africans to migrant menial labourers and restrict skilled work to Whites • Black Education Curtailed • Had to have a pass to move, could be arrested if they did not have that pass on them • Wanted to turn the Africans into unskilled Minority labourers • All the good jobs were reserved for white people • Blacks lived in hostels or barrack like buildings • Keep back political and economic development of black people • State owned enterprises to give more opportunities to the Dutch Afrikaner people • South Africa maintained an export economy while tightening restrictions of Apartheid • By 1959, rival group, Pan African congress set up to go up against the ANC who had been in favour of a non racial South African, one person, one vote • Pan African Congress was essentially a pro-black African, against the other groups, association, • Collaborated in resistance against Apartheid • In 1960, demonstration went down in the town of Sharpeville, coincided with the white Apartheid regime, continuously trying to restrict the residency of the Black Africans • 1961, after this massacre, Great Britain kicked South Africa out of the commonwealth • Response to growth of African independence was to set up a system of "homelands", where the Black Africans would have their own homeland, poor agricultural land and was remote from cities
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