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PSCI 2102 March 21, 2013.doc

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Political Science
PSCI 2101
Andrea Chandler

March 21, 2013 Iran • Non-Arab muslim country • Long tradition of monarchy • Sh'ia branch of Islam adopted officially Qajar Dynasty 1506 • Sh'ia Martyrdom of Hussein • Hidden Imam • Islamic Revolution • Velayat E Faqih • Guardianship of the (Islamic) Junst • Democracy and Theocracy Nigeria History • Pre-Colonial Nigeria was neither state nor nation • Three major cultural areas: o Muslim North o Yoruba West o Multi-ethnic Southeast North • Hausa become Muslim between 1000-1500 • Founded series of the city states • Reforming Muslims In 19th C. founded Sokoto Caliphate SouthWest • Yoruba and Bini peoples • Established city states based on trade • On the boarders of the Sahara, there are large trading empires • Groups establish a trade group and a toll gate • In the West of Nigeria, there is the Agricultural state • Dominated by chiefs and ancestral towns • Oyo, life and Benin • Cities dominated by chiefs known as Oba Southeast and Middle-Belt • Multi-ethnic area • Tropical and jungle like • Acephalous (no formal government) -> people simply govern themselves, little village communities without formal government • 3 distinct zones and political cultures • Penetration of European colonialism • Imperialism touches the region as part of the slave trade • More susceptible to missionaries The Global economy and Slave Trade • West Africa is integrated into the global economy through the slave trade • Slave trade thrives on ethnic conflict • Europeans concentrate on fort-cities along the coast • Early 19th century slave trade suppressed • Scramble for colonies takes place late 19th C • Slave trade exploited local conflicts among local groups within use of capturing other people's slaves • Europeans did not go further inland than the coast • We saw forts where land was handed over and shipped across the Atlantic • By early 19th century, slave trade was suppressed • British did not want unfair competition, if Britain abolished slavery, everyone else did too • Colonization in late 19th century, such as Germans and French • Scramble for colonization in Africa, there were advances in science and public health which helped the Europeans actually colonize • By the end of the 19th century, by last quarter, almost all of Africa was carved up among the Europeans • The Europeans having scrambled, were worried that they would have to go to war with each other, so in Berlin, they drew lines on the map • People who drew lines had never been there British Colonialism • 1884 Berlin Conference awards Nigeria to Britain • Nigeria becomes a colony in 1914 • Indirect rule practiced in Muslim North • South subjected to missionary activity • District Commissioners authorized Warrant Chiefs • Nigerian home to 250 ethnic groups • GB knew that indirect rulers would be better, In every district, the District commissioner would be chief magistrate, chief law administrator, and they were chiefs of the local chiefs • "Chief of the chiefs" Colonial Rule • British commercialize colony • Encourage cultivation of peanuts for export through head and hut taxes, had to be paid in cash, forced the locals into cash crops • Legislature established for south in 1930's • Colony-wide legislature after WWII • National Council of Nigeria and Cameroons (NCNC) dominates political life • Northern people's congress supports Caliphate in North • Southerners dominated with their own modern political party • In the North, the religious leaders created their own party and told people how to vote Ethnic Politics • NPC dominates North • Yoruba under Awolo from Action Group 1951 • Azikiwe dominates NCNC with Igbo and support from Southeast • Cartel of traditional rulers • Because the North had more people, they were able to dominate the legislature • The Yoruba split from NCNC and have their own political group in the legislature Independence • Following the independence of the First Sub-Saharan African • Nigeria becomes independent in October 1960 • Constitution establishes Federal, parliamentary rule • Four states: North, East; WEST; Middle • Homogeneous North dominates Parliament (legislature) (ethnically less diverse) • But South dominate the culture(they were more educated) 1966 Coups and Civil War 1967-70 • Janruary 1966 Igbo officers stage coup, murder Prime Minister • July 1966 Ironsi coup centralizes rule and abolishes ethnic recruitment • Provokes anti-Igbo massacres • Southeast seceeds (Biafra) • Igbo were the minority, there was a counter movement of the northerners • Igbo of the Southeast break away to form their own country called "Biafra" • In the area of the Delta of the Niger river, discovered oil • Which means that the Europeans had incentive to support or go against the civil war, depending on who would win • After terrible civil war, the Nigerian forces win the war • The size of the army in civil war will grow enormously Civil War Aftermath • Biafra besieged, starves • Nigerian Army swells to 100,000 by 1967 • Oil discovered in Niger delta • Number of states increases to 12 • National Unity re-established • Oil reserves delay return to civilian rule • On basis of Ethnic relations, there was a fair settlement, no horrible reprises of the people in the Southeast Military rule • Murtala Muhammad stages coup in 1975 pledging to curb corruption • Murtala assassinated • States increase to 19 in 1976 • Oil becomes principal revenue source • May be cheaper to import food than grow it yourself • Both EU and USA are creating agricultural surpluses • Subsidize farmers who produce more • Cheaper for Nigeria to import its food
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